Login
Password
Sources on this Page

> Headlines by Category

 Home / Regional / Asia / China

You are using the plain HTML view, switch to advanced view for a more complete experience.

布罗德研究所遭受重大挫折!在欧洲的一件CRISPR技术基础专利惨被撤销
2018年1月21日/生物谷BIOON/---2017年3月23日,欧洲专利局(European Patent Office, EPO)宣布它有意授予一件保护范围宽泛的CRISPR基因编辑技术专利(专利号...
中国科研人员“组装”基因 使水稻高产又好吃
 记者18日从中科院合肥物质科学研究院获悉,该院科研人员通过8年攻关,将水稻中的高产和优质基因筛出,重新“组装”改良水稻品种,破解了水稻“高产不好吃、...
经济舱综合征:旅行途中也有“隐形杀手”
  每次坐飞机旅行时,我都喜欢选临窗的位置,看蓝天云海、日出日落,任思绪在浩瀚的天空中任意纷飞。直到有一天,当我看到一篇报道时才意识到,原来做理想中...
Economics Students Unite in Bangladesh to Explore Paths Toward One South Asia
Chittagong, January 18, 2018 – The 14th  South Asia Economic Students’ Meet (SAESM) commences in Chittagong, Bangladesh today, embracing the arrival of over 110 top economics undergraduates and faculties from seven countries in South Asia towards the realization of a more integrated South Asia. Rising economists from Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lanka will engage in vigorous academic competitions and research presentations on South Asia’s development opportunities under the theme of regional integration in South Asia. The meet will also include discussions by professors and World Bank experts on how greater regional integration in South Asia can help countries achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). “South Asia is a region with immense potential and youthful energy waiting to thrive,” said Selim Raihan, SAESM Organizer for Bangladesh and Executive Director for the South Asia Network on Economic Modeling (SANEM). “Building trust among neighbors through students can help lay the foundation for lasting relationships that will benefit growth, poverty reduction and prosperity in the future.”SAESM Chittagong will include essay presentations and defense by students on their essays submitted for SAESM, a quiz on economic knowledge, as well as a ‘budding economist competition’’ that selects the brightest young economist through the best written and oral defense. Hosted this year by SANEM, participants come from a variety of South Asian universities including Dhaka University (Bangladesh), Delhi University (India), Lahore University of Management Sciences (Pakistan), University of Kabul (Afghanistan), Royal Thimphu College (Bhutan), and Tribhuvan University (Nepal). Recognizing its unparalleled efforts in facilitating regional academic and cultural exchange, the World Bank Group has supported SAESM for many years in the forms of financing, logistical support, external communications as well as speeches and competitions. “Regional Integration in South Asia is a work in progress, but there are many grounds for optimism, including the growing realization that most of the gains from regional integration remain under-exploited.  To help realize some of these gains, the WBG is supporting country governments in South Asia to deepen cooperation with their neighbors in several areas including energy, trade and investment, and connectivity,” said Sanjay Kathuria, Lead Economist for the World Bank. “Gains are likely to be incremental because this is a complex and long-term agenda. Youth can bring a business-like, uncluttered approach to provide greater momentum to the process of creating One South Asia.” Since SAESM was piloted in New Delhi, India in 2004 by a group of university professors, it has been hosted rotationally by organizers in India, Bangladesh, Nepal, Pakistan, Sri Lanka, and Bhutan. Afghanistan sent its first batch of delegates in 2014. “When we started SAESM, our objective was to bring together brilliant young economists from across South Asia and engage them in intensive academic exchange. Over the years SAESM has itself ‘graduated’ numerous dazzling talents and sent them worldwide,” said Raihan. Follow #SAESM developments on Twitter though the hashtag #OneSouthAsia
Une actualité brûlante : les appareils de cuisson propres
« Pourquoi est-ce que je pleure quand tu cuisines à l’intérieur ? », demande la fillette à sa mère, Mamta, qui prépare du riz et des lentilles sur leur chula, le fourneau à bois. La fumée qui s’échappe du bois remplit rapidement la petite pièce de leur maison dans le village de Siraj Nagar, aux alentours de Dhaka, au Bangladesh. La plupart des habitants préparent leurs repas sur des chula et exposent ainsi des familles entières à des émanations nocives. Comme Mamta, près de 3 milliards de personnes dans le monde utilisent toujours des appareils de cuisson et de chauffage traditionnels et inefficaces fonctionnant au bois, au charbon de bois, à la houille, au fumier animal ou aux résidus agricoles. Le coût pour la santé, l’environnement et l’économie de ce recours continu aux combustibles fossiles est exorbitant, puisqu’il est estimé à 123 milliards de dollars par an. Les femmes et les enfants sont les premières victimes sur le plan de la santé, sachant que c’est également à eux qu’incombe le plus souvent les corvées de ramassage. À eux seuls, les combustibles ligneux non renouvelables émettent pratiquement une gigatonne de CO2 par an, soit entre 1,9 et 2,3 % des émissions de gaz à effets de serre (GES) dans le monde. La conversion à des moyens de cuisson propres et efficients peut améliorer la santé publique, réduire la pollution de l’air par des substances toxiques, accroître la productivité et protéger l’environnement. Mais la conversion des pratiques des ménages du monde entier est plus complexe qu’il n’y paraît. Il faut certes faire évoluer les comportements et sensibiliser aux bienfaits des appareils de cuisson et des combustibles propres mais il faut également aider les entreprises à répondre à cette nouvelle demande avec des produits bon marché appréciés des clients. Bien consciente du problème, la Banque mondiale renforce son soutien depuis quelques années. Aujourd’hui, elle gère un portefeuille de 130 millions de dollars dans 13 pays en appui aux appareils de cuisson et de chauffage propres — l’un des plus importants au monde. Avec ses partenaires et à travers son Programme d’assistance à la gestion du secteur énergétique (ESMAP), elle déploie une stratégie en plusieurs volets, conjuguant approches de marché, technologies de cuisson efficientes, prix plus abordables, création de chaînes logistiques et évolution des comportements des consommateurs. Les programmes mis en place en Chine, en Éthiopie, en Indonésie, au Kenya, en Ouganda ou au Sénégal ont déjà bénéficié à 11 millions de personnes, qui ont désormais accès à des solutions plus propres et efficientes pour cuisiner et se chauffer. Les effets sur la vie quotidienne des bénéficiaires sont innombrables : en Indonésie par exemple, Tami cuisine désormais principalement avec son Keren Super Stove, qu’elle a pu obtenir grâce à un programme soutenu par la Banque mondiale. Libérée des longues corvées de bois et de cuisine, la jeune femme de 24 ans, mère de deux enfants, peut ainsi passer plus de temps avec sa famille. Quant à Yeni, une autre Indonésienne qui utilisait jusque-là du kérosène, elle s’est équipée d’un réchaud propre et, grâce aux économies réalisées, peut envoyer ses enfants à l’école.
Putting Clean Cooking on the Front Burner
 “Why do I get tears in my eyes when you cook inside the room?” asks Mamta’s daughter, looking at her mother while she prepares rice and daal in a chula, a firewood-burning cookstove.   The smoke released from the burning wood is quickly filling up the small room of their home, in the village of Siraj Nagar, outside of Dhaka in Bangladesh. Most households in the village use a chula, exposing entire families to harmful fumes. Just like Mamta, there are nearly 3 billion people around the world who still rely on traditional, inefficient stoves for cooking and heating their homes, which burn wood, charcoal, coal, animal dung or crop waste. The estimated health, environmental and economic cost of this continued use of solid fuels staggering: $123 billion annually. Women and children are disproportionally affected by the health impacts, and bear much of the burden of collecting firewood or other traditional fuels. Greenhouse gas emissions from nonrenewable wood fuels alone amount to a gigaton of CO2 per year – about 1.9-2.3 percent of global emissions. Shifting to clean, efficient cooking can improve people’s health, reduce toxic air pollution, increase productivity and protect the environment. But changing cooking practices in households across the world is more complicated than it seems. It requires changing behavior and raising awareness of the benefits of clean cookstoves and fuels, as well as helping businesses to meet this demand with affordable products that customers value. To meet this challenge, the World Bank has scaled up its commitments in recent years.  It now manages a $130 million portfolio in clean cooking and heating across 13 countries – one of the largest such portfolios in the world. Working with partners, and through its Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), the World Bank is taking a multifaceted approach combining innovative market-based strategies, efficient stove technologies, better affordability, development of supply chains, and a focus on consumer behavior. World Bank programs in countries such as China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Indonesia, Senegal and Uganda have already benefited 11 million people who now have access to cleaner, more efficient cooking and heating solutions.   These programs translate into countless individual stories. In Indonesia, Tami, a 24-year-old mother of two started using a Keren Super Stove as her primary cook stove with help from a program supported by the World Bank. She is now able to spend more time with her family and less time cooking and fuel collection. Yeni, another Indonesia woman who was formerly using kerosene, purchased a clean cookstove, and is now saving enough money to send both of her children to school. 
Next Year Must be One of Deepening Reforms
China's economy gathered strength in 2017, with one of the drivers of growth being exports which took advantage of surging global trade. The other driver was domestic consumption boosted by buoyant job creation and rising incomes. Xiao ayi, or aunt surnamed Xiao, works for my family-two overworked parents and a toddler-in Beijing. She is 46, married and has a daughter who is a university student. Asked what went well for her in 2017, she cheerfully replied: "I recently took up a new job. My 3-year old charge and I get along just great. Oh, and my salary went up by 10 percent!" Almost 11 million new urban jobs were created between January and September this year, compared with 10.7 million during the same period last year. Growth in household incomes, both in urban and rural areas, picked up and it is once again faster than the growth rate of the overall economy. This means more income was in the hands of consumers than investors, and the transition toward more consumption-led growth has regained momentum. Amid the favorable domestic and international economic environment, the authorities made substantial progress on important reforms. These include efforts to reduce excess capacity and to better enforce environmental standards. And fiscal and financial reforms were implemented to contain financial sector risks. If 2017 was characterized by economic resilience and regaining of reform momentum in China, what about next year? The World Bank forecasts 6.4 percent growth in 2018, when household consumption will remain the driving force of the economy. Certain important policies, such as continued efforts to restructure the economy and to rein in credit growth, are expected to weigh on investment. Slightly slower growth in the near term would help China avoid more significant economic pain later. For example, high debt levels imply a large burden of future interest payments, which may reduce companies' incentives to invest and grow. This is why limiting debt accumulation is rightly a key government priority. In response to policy and regulatory measures, credit growth began to slow down this passing year. Nevertheless, debt continues to grow considerably faster than output, and total credit to the non-financial sector, including government debt, was 242 percent of GDP last month, about 100 percent higher than before the global financial crisis. What would it take for China to sustain robust and inclusive growth beyond 2018? While sharing the benefits of growth with everyone is one of the twin goals of the World Bank, it was also emphasized at the 19th National Congress of the Communist Party of China in October. And it would be encouraging to see the policy agenda emphasize the quality, not quantity, of economic growth. One such reform is improving local governments' finances as part of the ongoing effort to modernize China's fiscal system. A successful implementation of the budget reform would help overcome the challenge of large debt, and allow available investment resources to be used more productively. Another area of reform is the pension system. Past policies were effective in increasing participation to a relatively high level by international standards. However, if a worker pays pension premiums in one province, in practice she or he finds it difficult to transfer the pension rights to another. Benefits for most beneficiaries are also not adequate to cover the cost of living. These and other challenges are well understood by policymakers. Xiao ayi admits she doesn't know much about government finances. But she is clear about what she would do with her salary increase: "I would save it." Why? Her life is much better today than it was in the past. But she worries about her future income. She is saving for retirement. She is also concerned about healthcare expenses. Her father-in-law got sick recently and his medical bill was rather high. The World Bank expects economic conditions, both at home and abroad, to remain favorable next year, and the world economic recovery is firmly underway, offering China's authorities the right conditions for accelerating reforms. (First appeared on China Daily on December 25, 2017)
全球经济向好是深化改革良机
在过去的2017年,中国经济积聚了力量。 有两个因素推动了中国经济的增长。一个是出口增加,这得益于全球贸易的回暖;另一个是内需旺盛,这主要由就业形势良好和收入增加所致。 去年1—9月,中国新增就业岗位近1100万,高于2016年同期的近1070万。城乡居民收入继续增长,增速再次超过经济增速。这意味着,更多的收入到了消费者手中,而不是投资者手中,增强了向消费主导型增长方式转型的动能。 在去年有利的国内外经济环境中,中国政府在推进重要改革方面取得了实质性进展,包括去产能和更好地执行环境标准,实施了财政和金融改革以遏制金融部门的风险。 如果说2017年中国经济的特点是经济韧性和改革动能增强,那么,今年将会怎样?根据世界银行的预测,2018年中国经济增长6.4%,居民消费将继续发挥对经济的推动作用。但是,某些重要政策,如继续推进经济结构调整和控制信贷增长的努力,可能会抑制投资的增长。 短期增速小幅放缓,有助于中国经济避免以后更大的痛苦。例如,债务水平过高意味着未来付息负担过重,有可能降低企业投资和成长的积极性。所以,把控制债务积累作为政府的一项关键优先工作是正确的。由于采取了有力的政策和监管措施,信贷增长去年开始减速,但债务增长速度仍明显高于国内生产总值增速。 未来中国如何延续强健和包容性增长?让所有人分享增长成果不仅是世界银行的目标,也是去年10月召开的中共十九大强调的目标。政府的政策议程把重点放在提升经济增长的质量而不是数量上,非常令人鼓舞。 其中,一项改革是改善地方政府财政,从而持续推进中国财政体制的现代化。实施预算改革的成功,将有助于应对巨额债务的挑战,也能使可用的投资资源配置到生产性用途上。另一项是养老体制改革,过去采取的政策有效地将参保率提高到按国际标准衡量较高的水平上。然而,养老保险关系往往很难异地转移。多数人的养老保险也不够支付生活费用。包括这些问题在内的其他相关问题,政府决策者们都很清楚。建立更可持续的养老保险制度,可以减少未来收入的不确定性,降低居民储蓄率。 新年伊始,世界银行预计今年世界经济状况将继续保持良好态势。过去几年一直不明朗的全球经济,如今已走上稳步复苏之路,这为中国政府提供了一个加快改革步伐的良机。 (作者为世界银行高级经济学家) (2018年1月8日首发于人民日报)
Global Economic Prospects: East Asia and the Pacific
Recent developments: Growth in developing East Asia and Pacific strengthened slightly in 2017 to 6.4 percent from 6.3 percent in 2016. The pickup reflected better-than-expected external conditions—an expansion of global activity and trade, a recovery of commodity prices, and benign financing conditions. The region accounted for more than a third of global growth in 2017, mostly due to China. Investment in the region, excluding China, showed signs of a cyclical upturn following several years of weakness. Trade flows recovered markedly across the region, and regional financial markets remained stable. Growth in China advanced modestly to 6.8 percent in 2017, mainly due to an acceleration of exports as global demand solidified. China’s economic rebalancing continued, with consumption growing faster than investment and services faster than industry. Excluding China, the rest of the region as a group picked up to 5.2 percent from 4.9 percent in 2016. The recovery in commodity prices and improved confidence supported activity in commodity exporting countries. Among these, GDP accelerated sharply in Malaysia due to increased private sector spending and rising exports. Also, growth inched up in Indonesia thanks to stronger investment and a pickup in exports.  Among commodity importers, Thailand grew more rapidly after several years of weakness. Vietnam expanded more strongly on the back of solid exports. Outlook: Growth in developing East Asia and Pacific is projected to ease to 6.2 percent in 2018 and to 6.1 percent in 2019 as a cyclical pickup in the region, excluding China, is offset by that the gradual structural slowdown in China. The region is expected to continue to be a major driver of global growth. Growth in China is projected to slow to 6.4 percent in 2018 as its economic rebalancing from investment to consumption proceeds and as credit growth decelerates. Growth in the rest of the region is expected to accelerate to 5.3 percent this year as commodity exporters continue to experience a cyclical rebound. Among commodity exporters, Indonesia is projected to accelerate to 5.3 percent this year as private consumption strengthens in line with wage gains. Growth is seen moderating in Malaysia to still-strong 5.2 percent as investment growth moderates slightly. Commodity importing economies are expected to see positive growth as well. Thailand is projected to see growth advance to 3.6 percent in 2018 from 3.5 percent as merchandise exports and tourism strengthen. Vietnam is seen growing 6.5 percent in this year after 6.7 percent in the year just ended, supported by robust agricultural production and strong export-oriented manufacturing. Risks: Risks to the outlook have become more balanced but are still tilted to the downside. Geopolitical tensions in the Korean peninsula could negatively affect confidence and trigger financial instability. A faster-than-expected tightening of financing conditions or a steeper-than-expected slowdown of major economies, including China, could exacerbate existing financial vulnerabilities. These vulnerabilities include elevated domestic debt, large external financing needs, and limited policy buffers. Increased projectionist sentiment in advanced economies, particularly the United States, and policy changes resulting from Great Britain’s departure from the European Union, would deepen uncertainty about established trading and investment relationships. Stronger-than-expected growth among advanced economies, and further strengthening of investment could lead to faster-than-anticipated growth in the region. 
《全球经济展望:普遍向好但能否持久?》: 东亚太平洋地区
近期发展:东亚太平洋地区发展中国家2017年增速略有加快,从2016年的6.3%加快至6.4%。增速加快反映出外部环境好于预期的影响——全球经济活动和贸易扩张、大宗商品价格回升和有利的融资条件。该地区2017年对全球增长的贡献超过1/3,主要归功于中国。除中国外,该地区其他国家的投资在经历数年疲软之后出现周期性回暖迹象。整个地区贸易交流呈现显著复苏,地区金融市场保持稳定。 中国2017年增速温和加快至6.8%,主要归因于全球需求趋强带来出口增长加快。中国经济再平衡继续推进,消费增速超过投资,服务业增速超过工业。 除中国外,该地区其他国家2017年整体增速从2016年的4.9%加快至5.2%。大宗商品价格回升和信心改善,支撑了大宗商品出口国的经济活动。其中,马来西亚因私营部门支出增加和出口上升导致GDP增速显著加快。印尼也因投资趋强和出口回暖,增速出现小幅上升。在大宗商品进口国里,泰国经历数年疲软之后增长加快。越南依靠稳健出口支撑实现更强劲的增长。 前景展望:预计东亚太平洋地区发展中经济体2018年增速放缓至6.2%,2019年6.1%。除中国外,该地区其他国家周期性好转的影响被中国逐步进入结构性减速所抵消。预计该地区将持续发挥对全球增长的主要推动作用。中国因受经济从投资向消费转型和信贷增长放慢影响,预计2018年增速放缓至6.4%。该地区其他国家因大宗商品出口国继续经历周期性反弹,预计今年增速将加快至5.3%。 在大宗商品出口国里,印尼因加薪带动私人消费增加,预计今年增速加快至5.3%。马来西亚因投资增长略有减速,预计增长放缓至仍然很高的5.2%。 预计大宗商品进口经济体也有望实现积极的增长。随着商品出口和旅游业回暖,预计泰国2018年增速从3.5%加快至3.6%。越南在稳健的农业生产和强大的出口导向型制造业支撑下,继去年增长6.7%之后预计今年增长6.5%。 存在风险:增长前景面临的风险趋于平衡,但仍倾向于下行。朝鲜半岛的地缘政治局势紧张可能会对信心产生负面影响,触发金融不稳定。融资条件收紧快于预期,或者包括中国在内的主要经济体经济减速幅度大于预期,都可能加剧现有的金融脆弱性。这些金融脆弱性包括国内债务过高、外部融资需求巨大和政策缓冲能力有限。发达经济体、特别是美国的保护主义上升,以及英国退欧带来的政策变化,都会加深围绕既有贸易和投资关系的不确定性。 发达经济体增速快于预期,以及投资进一步趋强,都有可能给该地区带来超过预期的快速增长。 东亚太平洋地区国别预测              (年度百分比变化,除非另有说明)                2015 2016 2017e 2018f 2019f 2020f  以市价计算的国内生产总值GDP (2010 US$)              柬埔寨 7.0 7.0 6.8 6.9 6.7 6.7  中国 6.9 6.7 6.8 6.4 6.3 6.2  斐济 3.6 0.4 3.8 3.5 3.3 3.2  印度尼西亚 4.9 5.0 5.1 5.3 5.3 5.3  老挝 7.4 7.0 6.7 6.6 6.9 6.9  马来西亚 5.0 4.2 5.8 5.2 5.0 4.7  蒙古 2.2 1.4 2.8 3.1 7.3 5.5  缅甸 7.0 5.9 6.4 6.7 6.9 6.9  巴布亚新几内亚 8.0 2.4 2.1 2.5 2.4 3.4  菲律宾 6.1 6.9 6.7 6.7 6.7 6.5  所罗门群岛 2.5 3.3 3.0 3.0 2.8 2.7  泰国 2.9 3.2 3.5 3.6 3.5 3.4  东帝汶 4.0 5.7 2.4 4.2 5.0 5.0  越南 6.7 6.2 6.7 6.5 6.5 6.5  资料来源:世界银行注释: e = 估算; f = 预测.  世界银行的预测根据最新信息和(全球)情况变化而频繁更新。因此,此预测可能与其他世行文件中的预测存在差异,即使中任何特定时刻对国家增长前景的基本评估没有很大区别。 
Post Selected Items to:

Showing 10 items of about 24000

home  •   advertising  •   terms of service  •   privacy  •   about us  •   contact us  •   press release design by Popshop •   © 1999-2018 NewsKnowledge