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Ramping up Nature-Based Tourism to Protect Biodiversity and Boost Livelihoods
A World Bank project in the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana is having an impact on the local economy while valuing wildlife at the same time, which are threatened by poaching and human-wildlife conflict. Over 150 young people received training in the tourism industry, nearly 100 of which are now gainfully employed in the field. By creating employment for local people in tourism they receive tangible economic benefits from the presence of wildlife alive, rather than dead.   The theme for this year’s International Day for Biological Diversity, celebrated May 22, is biodiversity and sustainable tourism to coincide with the observance of 2017 as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development. The program in the Okavango is proof that promoting biodiversity and economic growth through tourism is one way to reach win-win solutions for people and wildlife.   Over the past two years, the World Bank has ramped up efforts and reengaged in tourism through new initiatives due to a growing demand from countries to alleviate poverty through jobs and growth, while also protecting wildlife and conserving ecosystems. The tourism sector is expected to grow by 3.6% in 2017 and 3.9% per year globally over the next 10 years, according to the World Travel & Tourism Council. In 2016, travel and tourism contributed $7.6 trillion, or 10.2%, to total GDP, and the industry provided jobs to one in 10 people. In developing countries that depend on their natural capital assets, the figures can be equally as impressive:A recent economic assessment of tourism in Kenya shows travel and tourism contribute 10.5% of GDP, and provide nearly 550,000 jobs. It shows wildlife tourism “not only generates greater economic growth than other forms of tourism, but also has potential to do more to address poverty challenges” because wildlife tourism is more pro-poor, due to its closer linkages with the rural economy. Nature-based tourism has been identified in the country’s development blueprint, Vision 2030.In Tanzania, home of the Serengeti and Mount Kilimanjaro, nature-based tourism accounts for about 10% of GDP.In Namibia, 19% of all employment (direct and indirect) has been attributed to nature-based tourism.In the Maldives, tourism is the major source of government revenue that finances health and education. "A big male elephant that tourists can come see over the course of its lifetime will generate more money and more benefit for people and the nation,” said Professor Lee White, Executive Secretary of Gabon’s National Parks Agency, in a recent interview with the Global Wildlife Program. White stressed the importance of garnering support for the presence of wildlife from local communities. Creating jobs is one way to do that. “It’s one thing fighting cross-border poachers who are coming to poach in Gabon but if you are fighting with the villagers living around the parks you are going to lose.” Client demand for nature-based tourism projects is growing According to a recent portfolio review, there are nearly 25 World Bank projects, totaling over $800 million, with a nature-based tourism component or activity. An additional seven projects with investments of more than $115 million are in the pipeline. “The review shows there are a lot of entry points and many small tourism components in projects, but most importantly it shows there are opportunities and the potential to do a lot more in nature-based tourism,” said World Bank Lead Economist Urvashi Narain. Nature-based tourism can be a significant source of income for local communities and rural households, who often live in marginal areas with few pathways out of poverty. However, Narain said the relationship between nature-based tourism and poverty reduction is not always straightforward. Local communities near protected areas sometimes carry a large share of the costs of protected areas in the form of restricted access to land and natural resources and crop damage due to raiding wildlife. The World Bank Group supports interventions that strengthen the linkages between nature-based tourism and poverty reduction. “You have to include the poor people living near protected areas in order to protect wildlife,” said Narain.  
The Deputy Chairperson of the African Union visits the World Bank Group
  Deputy Chairperson of the African Union Commission (AUC), Mr. Kwasi Quartey, made a courtesy visit on Executive Directors representing African Constituencies at the World Bank Group (WBG) on June 9, 2017.  The meeting was hosted by Mr. Andrew N. Bvumbe, Executive Director for the Africa Group 1 Constituency. Two main issues were discussed, namely (i) human capacity building as a foundation of development, and (ii) challenges in health care delivery in Africa. The meeting acknowledged the importance of capacity building in Africa as a foundation of development. It was pointed out that there were over 460 million youth in Africa who could be an important resource in Africa’s economic transformation. With appropriate education and training, the youth could be transformed to be drivers of growth and development.   Health was said to be another major challenge to development in Africa as there is, among other challenges, an inadequate supply of well-trained doctors and health care specialist. There is an estimated requirement of 1.3 million additional doctors to close the skills gap. In the longer term, a solution would lie in the creation of regional training institutions where African governments would share costs while in the short term, tele-medicines could improve access to specialists. The Train-to-task was also proposed as an option available for potential increase of critical and affordable skills supply, especially to rural Africa. Mr. Bvumbe informed the AUC Deputy Chairperson that a Private Sector Window was established under IDA18, a which would support private sector investments in Africa. In addition, the initiative on domestic resource mobilization would also unlock additional resources.     
アフリカ地域
概要 2015年のサブサハラ・アフリカの成長率は、主に石油をはじめとする商品価格の下落を反映し、2014年の4.5%を下回る4.1%となる見込みです。 金属その他の主要一次産品の輸出国では、一次産品価格の下落に伴い活動が鈍化する一方、ほとんどの低所得国では、インフラ投資と農業拡大により堅調な成長が続くと予想されています。非石油部門、特にサービス部門では成長が続き、2016年以降の成長率を押し上げると見られます。低位中所得国と高位中所得国では、公共投資の増大と観光業の回復により成長が促進されるでしょう。 詳細は2015年度年次報告書(PDF)をご覧ください。  活動 世界銀行グループは、アフリカ地域の経済成長と貧困削減、経済的多様化、また新たな包括的開発フレームワークに重点をおいて取り組みを行っています。 また、以下の分野に優先的に取り組んでいます。農業生産性の向上小農家に対する技術面や資金面での支援、アグリビジネスへの投資、水源管理、また気候変動に優しい農業を推進しています。エネルギーの確保安価で安定的かつ持続可能なエネルギーの供給の他、気候変動適応と防災が最重要課題です。地域統合地域間の連携を強め、経済の活性化と生産性の強化を図ります。都市化水、衛生、交通、住居、権力とガバナンスの管理が、都市化による生産性と収入向上の鍵となります。質の高い人的資本としての若年層の育成雇用のニーズと人材のギャップを埋めるべく、若年層の技術スキル向上支援を行っています。 詳細はアフリカ地域ページ(英語)をご覧ください。
Mining Investment and Governance Review Aims to Improve Botswana’s Mining Sector
Gaborone, Botswana, May 4, 2017 - The World Bank Group has released its Mining Investment and Governance Review (MInGov) for Botswana to help the government improve the sector’s performance and to attract further investment. The review’s key findings indicate:Botswana’s mining policy and legal framework are sound;Mining sector institutions are for the most part staffed with trained, qualified people;Environmental protection legislation is current and in line with international good practice, with the exception of access to Environmental Impact Assessments;Land use issues, including resettlement and compensation require a more inclusive process and stronger legislative framework; andLocal content policy should be developed with mining sector participation. “As a country we have to continue to strengthen performance and address issues of concern to investors. We need to build an environment that will stimulate more investment in mineral extraction,” said Kgomotso Abi, Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Mineral Resources, Green Technology and Energy Security. Mining is critically important for Botswana’s economic development and currently accounts for over 24% of Botswana’s GDP and 89% of its exports. Diamond resources were discovered in Botswana 50 years ago and are credited with rapidly transforming the country from severely impoverished to an upper middle-income success story. The MInGov findings support this remarkable economic development story. “The Botswana MInGov findings are very encouraging. Mining can be a powerful and effective engine for development. I look forward to seeing more initiatives like MInGov help Botswana seize opportunities to improve its mining sector and achieve its development goals,” said Elene Imnadze, World Bank Country Representative for Botswana. The complete report for MInGov Botswana can be found here. The Botswana Mining Investment and Governance Review was made possible by support from the Extractive Industries—Technical Advisory Facility (EI-TAF), the German Development Cooperation, and the Inter-American Development Bank. About MInGov: The Mining Investment and Governance Review (MInGov) provides an objective assessment of the mining sector. It offers actionable recommendations for reform, supports transparency, and informs investment decision-making among stakeholders. MInGov gives the public sector access to policy and institutional analyses and the private sector valuable country-specific data to inform investment. MInGov assessments are based on extensive data from in-country interviews and research that involve government, the private sector, and civil society. MInGov was piloted in Zambia and implemented in 8 countries. For more information, please visit www.worldbank.org/mingov. About the World Bank Group: The World Bank Group plays a key role in the global effort to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity. It consists of five institutions: The World Bank, including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA); the International Finance Corporation (IFC); the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Working together in more than 100 countries, these institutions provide financing, advice, and other solutions that enable countries to address the most urgent challenges of development. For more information, please visit www.worldbank.org, www.miga.org, and ifc.org. 
Falling Fertility in Botswana Provides Chance for Future Economic Growth
GABORONE, May 5, 2017—The World Bank’s Forever Young report  highlights the fertility decline experienced by Botswana since the 1980s has put  the country at the edge of a window of demographic opportunity, decades before the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa. In 1980 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 6.2 children per woman and in 2015 it was 2.7 children per woman, the greatest fertility decline in Africa in the last three decades. As a consequence, the proportion of child dependents is declining rapidly, while the working-age population will increase by 29 percent between now and 2050.  The report’s findings were presented to government officials, academia, and other stakeholders in Gaborone in March. “Botswana will need to rethink its economic strategy to take advantage of the demographic opportunity offered by an increasing workforce,” said Elene Imnadze, World Bank Botswana Country Representative at the Forever Young Report presentation. “The country does not currently rely on labor as the main factor of production. Thus, the potential gains from the demographic opportunity can be severely constrained, as the link between GDP growth and employment is weak.” A shift of economic structure towards labor intensive sectors might be required to create more jobs for the new entrants. Just to hold current unemployment rates steady until 2050, Botswana needs to create 340,000 jobs. Its failure to do so could translate into an increase in unemployment, possibly even into social unrest. Luckily, demography per se will not add much to the fiscal burden of social sectors, such as education, health, and social protection, and it will ease in the case of education. Assuming coverage and spending per pupil stay constant at current levels, fiscal spending on education would decrease by more than 3 percentage points of GDP between now and 2050, as the number of school-age children declines. “This can provide the government with the necessary fiscal space to increase investment in the productivity of the workforce, focusing on the quality of education and skills demanded by the labor market,” said Jamele Rigolini, Lead Economist and Acting Social Protection Manager. If Botswana were to invest in the productivity of the workforce, and increase average annual labor productivity growth by 0.5 percentage points, the country would achieve by 2050 a 14 percent growth in  income per capita than with the current policy scenario, the report states. While demographic transition in Botswana is inevitable, a positive dividend from it is not. Botswana will have to act now and implement key policy reforms to allow current and future generations to harness it.
World Bank Vice President for Africa Makhtar Diop Visits Botswana
GABORONE, May 17, 2017 —The World Bank Vice President for Africa, Mr. Makhtar Diop, will visit Botswana from May 17-18, 2017. The purpose of the visit is to engage with the Government on the World Bank support to Botswana development priorities. During this two-day trip Mr. Diop will sign a loan agreement of the $145.5 million for the Emergency Water Security and Efficiency project jointly with the Minister of Finance and Economic Development, to support Botswana in its effort to enhance water efficiency and security and meet immediate needs of recent drought affected communities.  Mr. Diop will also discuss opportunities for Botswana to shift to a new growth model that would create sufficient, broad-based employment. This will be Mr. Diop’s first visit to the Republic of Botswana since his appointment as the World Bank’s Vice President for Africa in May 2012.  Under his leadership, the World Bank committed $9.4 billion to Sub-Saharan Africa in FY2016 to help tackle development including increasing food security and agricultural productivity; improving access to affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy, creating economic opportunities for Africa’s youth.
Global Wildlife Program
Why is the Global Wildlife Program needed? The illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is a global threat. The problem is particularly acute in Africa, where iconic species – the African elephant, white and black rhinos, and pangolins – are being poached to extinction. About 33,000 elephants are poached every year for their ivory. The rhino poaching crisis is also escalating. In 2007, 13 rhinos were poached in South Africa, in 2015, 1,338 rhinos were poached--1,175 of those in South Africa alone. As species are poached and illegally harvested at increasingly unsustainable levels, wildlife crime has become the fourth most lucrative illegal business after narcotics, human trafficking, and weapons. The presence of wildlife in protected areas ensures that an ecosystem can function and maintain natural capital (soil, forests, air, water, etc.) As natural resource crime such as poaching increases, it results in environmental degradation. This adversely affects ecosystem services, which in turn affects the survival of these communities who depend upon these services for livelihoods, fuel and food. The cost of environmental crime to developing countries is estimated to be more than $70 billion a year (World Bank 2014). To respond to the growing crisis and international call for action, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) in June 2015 launched the “Global Partnership on Wildlife Conservation and Crime Prevention for Sustainable Development” program also known as the Global Wildlife Program (GWP). What does the Global Wildlife Program aim to do? The GWP is a World-Bank led global partnership that promotes wildlife conservation and sustainable development by combatting illicit trafficking in wildlife. This seven-year, $131 million grant program is expected to leverage an additional $704 million in additional co-financing from a wide range of partners to promote investments across Africa and Asia. By approaching the poaching crisis holistically through various country projects and a larger global project, it seeks to reduce both the supply and demand that drives the illegal wildlife trade, and protect species and habitats through integrated landscape planning.   GWP’s priority and immediate focus is combating wildlife poaching, trafficking, and demand. The program also focuses on improving wildlife management, providing livelihood opportunities through tourism, and improving governance throughout the supply chain for illegal wildlife products. In addition, the program will support integrated landscape management, land use zoning and natural resource management best practices. Through its global and country projects, the GWP will:Promote community-based natural resource management and tourism development: Often in challenging political environments.Help countries achieve their biodiversity goals: It will support the implementation of country priorities identified in the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Elephant Action Plan and other wildlife and tourism national strategies.Accelerate learning: It will develop an online repository of information and conduct training and capacity building workshops to ensure knowledge exchange between countries, partners and other stakeholders. It will provide opportunities for regional and global knowledge exchanges.Enhance collaboration: It will foster intergovernmental cooperation, leverage monitoring and evaluation and geospatial tools, increase intelligence sharing to track criminals, collaborate on efforts around anti-money laundering, capture lessons learned, apply best practices, and innovative communication strategies.  In addition, it will include a component to promote best practices in ports and collaboration between African and Asian countries and agencies involved in reducing maritime transport of illegal wildlife products, especially ivory.Strengthen partnerships: It will build synergies with the International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC). It is a collaboration between the CITES Secretariat, INTERPOL, UNODC, the World Customs Organization and the WBG, which has been a partner to ICCWC since 2010.Implement a monitoring and evaluation framework:  It will develop and deploy a monitoring system for the program to track program progress and serve as an integral tool to promote synergies amongst national projects.Coordinate programs with the GEF Secretariat and implementing agencies: To ensure coordination amongst projects within and beyond the program. This will be an important mechanism for implementation of GEF-6 (2014-2018) Biodiversity Strategy program three which is focused on preventing the extinction of known threatened species. The GWP also aims to target other focal areas of the GEF-6: Biodiversity, Land Degradation, Climate Change and Sustainable Forest Management.Promote donor coordination: As part of ongoing engagement with key international donors, the program will serve as a platform to assess the current state of international funding to tackle illicit trafficking in wildlife. The GWP released the first-ever review of international donor funding for combatting illegal wildlife trade in Africa and Asia, which shows that over $1.3 billion was committed by 24 international donors since 2010. The report serves as a baseline the donor community can build upon, which in consultation with recipient countries, can establish the future state vision for IWT financing. This will facilitate sharing of lessons learned and inform strategic efforts to fill financing gaps for priority intervention areas. Who are the GWP partner countries? Collectively, the GWP countries make up an incredible repository of biodiversity and potential for sustainable de¬velopment. The program’s integrated platform will sup¬port national governments and development partners to reduce the impacts of wildlife poaching and trafficking, and promote livelihood activities by local communities. In Africa, the GWP has programs in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, the Republic of Congo, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. In Asia, programs are in Afghanistan, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The implementing agencies channeling the funds to the governments or other partners for the national projects are the World Bank Group, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The GWP also collaborates with the International Consortium to Combat Wildlife Crime (ICCWC) and other donors and conservation partners to implement an integrated approach for biodiversity conservation, wildlife crime prevention and sustainable development, including:Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) SecretariatWorld Wildlife Fund (WWF)International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)TrafficWildAid 
Botswana Takes Action to Assess and Prevent Financial Crimes
GABORONE, March 14, 2017—Botswana has just completed a National Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Counter Financing of Terrorism (CFT) Risk Assessment. The National Risk Assessment (NRA) was supported by the World Bank which resulted in the adoption by officials of a National AML/CFT Risk Assessment Report and Action Plan presented at a three-day workshop. Botswana is the eleventh country in Africa to do so. In 2012, an international obligation was adopted by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) requiring all countries to undertake a National AML/CFT Risk Assessment. The goal behind this was to bring about stronger more effective AML/CFT systems by identifying the risks a country faces and targeting scarce resources in a way that mitigates the identified risks, threats, and vulnerabilities. Prior to 2012, there was no precedent of a country that had undertaken a National AML/CFT Risk Assessment (NRA), and because such a task was regarded as complicated and daunting, the World Bank’s Financial Integrity Unit saw it fit to develop a National AML/CFT Risk Assessment Tool. The tool was developed to aid countries that needed assistance and guidance on how to commence such an assessment. Botswana was one of the countries that requested the World Bank Group’s help with conducting the assessment in 2014.  To date, the World Bank’s NRA Tool has been used by more than 40 countries to complete NRAs, 30 more countries have commenced NRAs using the World Bank NRA Tool, and another 30+ countries have requested World Bank technical assistance and the NRA Tool to support the commencement of their NRAs.    “The World Bank’s National Risk Assessment tool helped to add value to this important work by providing a more thorough understanding of how to assess actual money laundering and terrorist financing risks using clear data,” said Elene Imnadze, World Bank Botswana Country Representative at the NRA workshop. “The World Bank stands ready to support Botswana’s work and help it become a leading African country in effectively meeting international obligations.” The recently completed process involved more than 50 officials representing approximately 20 collaborating ministries and a number of agencies. Officials with AML/CFT expertise worked to collect and analyze large amounts of data, information and statistics to identify and prioritize the main money laundering and terrorist financing risks Botswana faces.  Risks are assessed by collecting data and information to measure “threats” and “vulnerabilities.”  Threats are existing (internal or external) circumstances and systems that cannot be eliminated, so they must be mitigated, like illegal activities abroad that cross borders into Botswana, and even Botswana’s own financial system.  Vulnerabilities are the internal mitigation systems, for example effectiveness of customs and border control systems, and controls in the financial sector.  When the effectiveness of the vulnerabilities are measured (and rated) against the various threat levels, these comparisons produce an overall risk level which indicates to a country how well existing systems are mitigating the risks, and where improvements are needed.  Such system of assessment also enables officials to prioritize risks so that resources can be more effectively targeted to mitigate them.   The money laundering risks identified at the workshop were based on data indicating higher levels of criminality linked to wildlife poaching, weak controls in the diamond sector, auto theft, and financial crimes like tax evasion and corruption.  Weaknesses in national AML/CFT controls systems were identified in the legal frameworks and effectiveness of implementation.  The completion of the National AML/CFT Risk Assessment indicates that Botswana has complied with an important international AML/CFT obligation which other countries in the world are in the process of undertaking.  “We appreciate the assistance we have received from the World Bank throughout the duration of the National Risk Assessment project. We are also grateful for the NRA working groups and the selflessness and enthusiasm they exhibited during the course of the project. Moving forward I hope we will be able to strengthen our legal framework, which is our first line of defense in the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing,” remarked Elaina Gonsalves, Deputy Secretary for economic and finance policy in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development. The identified risks and threats from the National AML/CFT Risk Assessment will assist the officials to strengthen country systems and apply appropriate control measures in order to fight money laundering, terrorist financing, and related underlying criminal activities including corruption, pursuant to international AML/CFT obligations*. This system, once fully operational, will stem illicit financing flows (IFFs) and contribute to stronger economic development, shared prosperity, and help reduce poverty.  *International AML/CFT obligations are based on various international treaties & conventions.  These obligations are specified in the 40 Recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force Against Money Laundering/Terrorist Financing (FATF).  These can be found at: http://www.fatf-gafi.org/publications/fatfrecommendations/documents/fatf-recommendations.html
Pour des règles du jeu équitables : un nouvel atlas transforme l’accès aux données juridiques en Afrique
WASHINGTON, le 9 mars 2017 – La bonne gouvernance du secteur minier en Afrique suppose l’existence d’un arsenal juridique sans faille. Or ce secteur a pâti jusqu’ici d’un manque de connaissances sur l’évolution des législations des pays africains. Une lacune devenue criante quand un certain nombre d’entre eux, au moment d’adopter ou d’amender leurs codes miniers, ont voulu s’appuyer sur des données comparatives ou des orientations quant à la façon de procéder. Bien que les législations minières soient disponibles dans le domaine public, elles ne sont guère accessibles dans les faits, faute de capacités institutionnelles et de moyens pour diffuser ce type d’informations et de données. C’est dans le but de combler ce vide que le Groupe de la Banque mondiale s’est associé à la Facilité africaine de soutien juridique et à la Commission de l’Union africaine pour lancer le projet « AMLA » (pour African Mining Legislation Atlas). Avec cet atlas des législations minières africaines, il s’agit de favoriser les échanges sur le développement durable du secteur des mines en Afrique par le biais de trois dispositifs :une plateforme de ressources en ligne qui fournit un accès gratuit et centralisé à l’encadrement juridique du secteur minier en Afrique (codes miniers, réglementations et législations des différents pays) ;un programme de formations (a) conçu pour renforcer les capacités de la prochaine génération de professionnels du droit africains ;un modèle cadre (a) qui consiste en un guide de rédaction juridique pour l’élaboration ou la révision des législations minières. Le projet AMLA a formé à ce jour 70  étudiants en droit (36 hommes et 34 femmes), originaires de 18 pays africains. La plateforme, disponible en anglais, en français et en portugais, renferme la totalité des 53 codes miniers existant actuellement en Afrique ainsi qu’un outil comparatif qui permet de mettre en parallèle les dispositions législatives de 37 pays sur les 98 sujets les plus courants du droit minier. Le modèle cadre de l’AMLA, un outil d’aide à la décision Le modèle cadre (a) lancé il y a quelques mois sur la plateforme AMLA est un outil de référence en ligne et gratuit qui propose des lignes directrices pour la rédaction d’une législation minière ou son évaluation au regard du contexte qui prévaut actuellement en Afrique. Il traite de plus de 200 aspects et fournit, pour chacun d’eux, une description détaillée ainsi qu’une sélection d’exemples de dispositions législatives accompagnées d’annotations contenant des éléments de contexte et des éclairages sur les problématiques éventuelles et les points à relever. Ce guide, et la plateforme AMLA plus généralement, ont reçu un accueil très favorable auprès de l’ensemble des acteurs concernés. Lors de l’inauguration officielle du projet organisé à l’occasion de la conférence Mining Indaba, le plus grand rendez-vous mondial consacré aux investissements miniers en Afrique, les hauts responsables et ministres des mines de plusieurs pays africains ont salué une initiative plus que nécessaire. À l’instar de Lebohang Thotanyana, ministre des Mines du Lesotho, qui voit dans l’AMLA « un instrument dont le continent africain a besoin depuis longtemps ». Selon le ministre lesothan, qui conduit le processus de révision de la législation minière récemment engagé par son pays, la plateforme et le modèle cadre fournis par l’AMLA vont permettre à son équipe d’œuvrer avec plus d’efficacité et de transparence. Pour la commissaire de l'Union africaine au Commerce et à l'Industrie, Fatima Haram Acyl, « l’Afrique a besoin d’instruments qui répondent et soient conformes aux principes de la Vision minière pour l’Afrique ainsi qu’aux aspirations de l’Agenda 2063 ». Et d’ajouter : « l’AMLA est le seul instrument de ce type disponible à ce jour […] qui vient répondre à la nécessité de disposer d’un arsenal complet de lois et de cadres règlementaires sur les ressources minières. »   Parmi les autres participants à cet événement, Christopher Stevens, associé dans le cabinet Werkmans et président de LEX Africa, et Nicola Woodroffe, spécialiste juridique au sein du Natural Resources Governance Institute (NRGI), ont tous deux mis en avant les nombreux bénéfices que l’AMLA procure aux cabinets d’avocats qui travaillent auprès de clients du secteur privé et du secteur public. Un projet ancré en Afrique                                                                           Au moment de la planification du projet, il avait été jugé important et pertinent de faire en sorte, qu’à terme, une instance basée en Afrique en assume la responsabilité, l’objectif étant de garantir un engagement vigoureux et d’assurer une production mutuelle de connaissances ancrée dans la réalité du secteur minier africain.     C’est dans cet esprit que la Banque mondiale a commencé à transférer l’entretien et l’actualisation régulière de la plateforme AMLA, ainsi que la coordination du programme de formations, à un secrétariat de la Facilité africaine de soutien juridique, elle-même placée sous l’égide de la Banque africaine de développement. Comme le souligne Sheila Khama, chef de service au pôle Énergie et industries extractives du Groupe de la Banque mondiale, « en transférant l’administration courante de la plateforme à la Facilité africaine de soutien juridique, qui relève de la Banque africaine de développement, la Banque mondiale contribue à valoriser les capacités de ses partenaires régionaux et à pérenniser le projet ».
Igualdade de Condições: Um Novo Atlas Transforma o Acesso aos Dados Jurídicos em África
WASHINGTON, 9 de Março de 2017 – É essencial um enquadramento legal abrangente para uma adequada governação do sector mineiro de África. Contudo, o acesso e o conhecimento das alterações legislativas em muitos países africanos não acompanharam o seu ritmo real. Vários países africanos esforçaram-se por adoptar ou rever os códigos mineiros, procurando informações comparativas e orientações sobre práticas de referência no processo, mas o vazio tornou-se óbvio: há uma falta de dados comparativos sobre leis da mineração e modelos padronizados adequados para a indústria mineira de África. Estas leis já são documentos públicos embora a acessibilidade a estes documentos esteja bloqueada, o que em grande medida se deve à falta de capacidade institucional e à escassez de formas para fornecer essas informações e dados. Em 2014 o Grupo Banco Mundial, em parceria com o Fundo Africano de Apoio Jurídico e a Comissão da União Africana lançou a AMLA. A AMLA visa catalisar a discussão em torno do desenvolvimento sustentável do sector mineiro de África através de três vias:A Plataforma AMLA é um balcão único online grátis, de informações sobre o enquadramento legal da mineração em África, incluindo códigos de mineração, regulamentos e legislação pertinente;O Programa de Formação AMLA centrado no reforço da capacidade na próxima geração de juristas de África; eO Modelo Orientador, um documento anotado concebido para assistir os países na preparação ou revisão das suas leis sobre mineração. Até à data, o projecto AMLA preparou 70 jovens africanos estudantes de direito, 36 homens e 34 mulheres, de 18 países. A AMLA está disponível em Inglês, Francês e Português e contém todos os 53 códigos de mineração africanos existentes, em formato pesquisável, bem como uma funcionalidade de comparação que permite aos utilizadores comparar as disposições legislativas dos 37 países relativamente aos 98 temas mais abordados no que toca a lei da mineração. Modelo Orientador da AMLA, uma Ferramenta para os Decisores No princípio deste ano, foi lançado um produto de conhecimento, o Modelo Orientador da AMLA, uma ferramenta online de referência grátis, que presta orientação sobre a elaboração ou avaliação de uma lei mineira baseada nas actuais realidades de África. Abrange mais de 200 tópicos, fornecendo (i) uma descrição detalhada do tema e (ii) um menu de uma amostra de disposições legislativas acompanhado de anotações para explicar o contexto, questões e aspectos úteis da língua em que são apresentadas. A reacção à AMLA e Modelo Orientador foi altamente positiva de toda a parte. Realizou-se um evento de lançamento em Mining Indaba, a maior conferência do mundo sobre investimento mineiro em África. Altas autoridades governamentais e Ministros das Minas de vários países africanos estiveram presentes e saudaram a AMLA como uma iniciativa muito necessária. “Acho que é a ferramenta que o Continente Africano há muito precisava” disse S.Exa. Lebohang Thotanyana, Ministro das Minas do Lesoto, que está actualmente a dirigir o processo de revisão da lei mineira do Lesoto. O Ministro declarou que o processo, que a sua equipa acabou de iniciar, será realizado de uma forma eficiente e transparente graças à Plataforma AMLA e ao Modelo Orientador. S.Exa. Fatima Haram Acyl, Comissária para o Comércio e Indústria da Comissão da União Africana afirmou que “África precisa de ferramentas que respondam e estejam alinhadas com os princípios da Visão para a Exploração Mineira em África da Agenda 2063. O Atlas da Legislação Africana em Matéria de Mineração é […] a única dessas ferramentas […] que responde à necessidade de haver leis abrangentes sobre recursos minerais e quadros regulamentares”.   Entre os presentes no lançamento e que usaram da palavra contam-se Christopher Stevens, Sócio Parceiro de Werkmans LLC e chefe de LexAfrica, e Nicola Woodroffe, Analista Legal do Instituto de Administração dos Recursos Naturais (NRGI). Ambos referiram os muitos benefícios que a AMLA proporciona às sociedades de advogados que representam os clientes, tanto do sector privado como do público. Um Futuro de Apropriação Africana Durante as fases de planeamento da AMLA ficou determinado que, em última instância, seria importante e adequado que uma entidade sedeada em África assumisse o controlo do projecto para garantir que havia um forte compromisso com a continuação da co-geração de conhecimento com fundamento nas realidades do sector mineiro africano. É neste espírito que o Banco Mundial começou a transferir a manutenção e actualização regular da plataforma AMLA e a coordenação do Programa de Formação para um secretariado no Fundo Africano de Apoio Jurídico, que é acolhido pelo Banco Africano de Desenvolvimento.
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