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Investment Needed to Treat TB in Miners and Their Communities
JOHANNESBURG, July 27, 2017—Tuberculosis (TB) still ranks as one the top five causes of death in Southern Africa, despite an overall decline between 1990 and 2013 in the number of deaths from the disease globally. TB is an infectious, bacterial disease that usually affects the lungs, and silicosis is a lung disease caused by inhaling mineral dust. Miners, most of whom work in close proximity to each other in confined spaces underground in southern Africa’s large, commercial mines for gold, copper, and other minerals, tend to have a higher prevalence of TB. The AIDS virus, which weakens the immune system, also plays a role in the risk of developing TB. Statistics from South Africa’s gold mines in suggest a TB rate of more than ten times the World Health Organization’s emergency threshold of 250/100,00—or about 2,500–3,000 diagnosed cases per 100,000 people. To make matters worse, it is thought that 70% of occupational TB cases go undetected. An estimated 500,000 miners currently work in South Africa, where the World Bank and others joined in the fight against TB are discussing initiatives to tackle it. Their meeting, Smart Investments in Health: Mining as a Catalyst for Building Sustainable Communities, brings together representatives from mining associations, as well as members of the private sector, governments, civil society, and academics. The focus of their work is built on previous initiatives to improve mining policy and legislation to help reduce miners’ exposure to TB infection and make sure they work and live in safer environments. “Coming out of this meeting, it is important to continue to explore the role of industry in complementing government efforts to increase basic health services in mining communities and incentivize investment in health and safety,” said Patrick Osewe, the World Bank’s Global Lead for Healthy Communities. Community development trusts are being considered as models for investing in initiatives against TB, as well as the use of technology and information management, and the separate roles social labor plans and corporate responsibility should play. “We hope this meeting will mobilize the resources required to deal with the effects of TB and dust-related diseases,” said Paul Noumba Um, the World Bank’s Country Director for Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. “And that it will galvanize lawmakers into bringing in legislation for the provision of occupational health services in their countries.” Some countries lack the regulations and institutions needed to adequately address the effects of mining on the health of miners and the communities around mines, with services especially limited for workers in artisanal and small-scale mines. The World Bank and the UK’s fund for international development, Dfid, have invested in mechanisms that could unlock more finance for the TB initiative, while the Global Fund has contributed US$30m for TB initiatives in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. This is in addition to US$120m in World Bank support for four Southern African countries.  Many miners are migrant workers and so initiatives designed to help them include the harmonisation of TB management protocols to ensure they receive uninterrupted treatment for TB and medical referrals from one country to another. Other initiatives taken include training for 130 health workers from Southern Africa, a database of ex-mineworkers, the geospatial mapping of both mines and health services, and the tracking and tracing of unclaimed benefits for ex-mineworkers. 
Call for Smart Investments to Improve Health of Miners
Southern African Development Community explores ways to respond to occupational health JOHANNESBURG, July 26, 201—The health of miners in Southern Africa, their families, and their wider communities could be improved through smart investments in initiatives aimed at tackling occupational diseases, such as TB and Silicosis, members of groups attending a two-day meeting underway in South Africa have stated. Under the theme, Smart Investments in Health: Mining as a Catalyst for Building Sustainable Communities, associations of miners and ex-miners, as well as members of the private sector, governments and their development partners, and civil society are identifying priority interventions for further investment in occupational and public healthcare. The meeting is taking place amid a growing mining industry, with more countries discovering minerals. Studies in ten countries in the Southern African Development Community show, however, that most have not yet set up strong regulations and institutions to address the effects of mining on health in and around the mines. Mine workers, especially those in artisanal and small-scale mines, have limited access to occupational health services. And the communities living around mines are often also exposed to the same public and environmental health risks, such as TB and HIV infection, air and water pollution.  “Addressing a complex, 150 year-old, TB problem in mines requires a coordinated multi-sectoral and multi-country approach, and partnerships,” said Paul Noumba Um, World Bank Country Director for South Africa. “Various regional initiatives have been undertaken to fight this scourge in Southern Africa. Today, we are calling on partners to do more”. In the last five years, a significant amount of knowledge has been generated to understand the extent of this problem and enable countries to identify solutions. Countries have started initiatives to prevent TB infection, identify TB cases, and provide TB treatment services and occupational health services to current and ex-mineworkers. This is a critical initiative in a region where mineworkers have higher TB prevalence compared to general population. An estimated 500,000 mineworkers work in South Africa. Statistics suggest 2,500–3,000 diagnosed TB cases per 100,000 mineworkers in the gold mines, ten times the World Health Organization’s emergency threshold (of 250/100,000 people). An estimated 70% of occupational TB cases go undetected. ”We are beginning to see concrete action for addressing TB in the mining affected populations in the region. This is the start of a paradigm shift, but must be sustained and scaled-up for impact,” said, Suvanand Sahu, Deputy Executive Deputy Director of the Stop TB Partnership Secretariat. Some of the models for investing in occupational and public health being considered are community development trusts, social labor plans, and corporate social responsibility. “The implementation of these programs require considerable resources and mobilizing investment from various partners, including the private sector,” said Donald Denis Tobaiwa, Chair of the Regional Coordinating Mechanism of Southern Africa. This meeting is building on previous initiatives to improve mining policy and legislation. “We see a role for the private sector in providing financial resources to scale-up existing initiatives, such as the expansion of occupational TB services to key affected populations,” said Mark Edington, Head of Grant Management Division for the Global Fund. “The experience of the Global Fund has shown successful outcomes when partnering with the private sector to fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria in other regions.”
Mining Investment and Governance Review Aims to Improve Botswana’s Mining Sector
Gaborone, Botswana, May 4, 2017 - The World Bank Group has released its Mining Investment and Governance Review (MInGov) for Botswana to help the government improve the sector’s performance and to attract further investment. The review’s key findings indicate:Botswana’s mining policy and legal framework are sound;Mining sector institutions are for the most part staffed with trained, qualified people;Environmental protection legislation is current and in line with international good practice, with the exception of access to Environmental Impact Assessments;Land use issues, including resettlement and compensation require a more inclusive process and stronger legislative framework; andLocal content policy should be developed with mining sector participation. “As a country we have to continue to strengthen performance and address issues of concern to investors. We need to build an environment that will stimulate more investment in mineral extraction,” said Kgomotso Abi, Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Mineral Resources, Green Technology and Energy Security. Mining is critically important for Botswana’s economic development and currently accounts for over 24% of Botswana’s GDP and 89% of its exports. Diamond resources were discovered in Botswana 50 years ago and are credited with rapidly transforming the country from severely impoverished to an upper middle-income success story. The MInGov findings support this remarkable economic development story. “The Botswana MInGov findings are very encouraging. Mining can be a powerful and effective engine for development. I look forward to seeing more initiatives like MInGov help Botswana seize opportunities to improve its mining sector and achieve its development goals,” said Elene Imnadze, World Bank Country Representative for Botswana. The complete report for MInGov Botswana can be found here. The Botswana Mining Investment and Governance Review was made possible by support from the Extractive Industries—Technical Advisory Facility (EI-TAF), the German Development Cooperation, and the Inter-American Development Bank. About MInGov: The Mining Investment and Governance Review (MInGov) provides an objective assessment of the mining sector. It offers actionable recommendations for reform, supports transparency, and informs investment decision-making among stakeholders. MInGov gives the public sector access to policy and institutional analyses and the private sector valuable country-specific data to inform investment. MInGov assessments are based on extensive data from in-country interviews and research that involve government, the private sector, and civil society. MInGov was piloted in Zambia and implemented in 8 countries. For more information, please visit www.worldbank.org/mingov. About the World Bank Group: The World Bank Group plays a key role in the global effort to end extreme poverty and boost shared prosperity. It consists of five institutions: The World Bank, including the International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) and the International Development Association (IDA); the International Finance Corporation (IFC); the Multilateral Investment Guarantee Agency (MIGA); and the International Centre for Settlement of Investment Disputes (ICSID). Working together in more than 100 countries, these institutions provide financing, advice, and other solutions that enable countries to address the most urgent challenges of development. For more information, please visit www.worldbank.org, www.miga.org, and ifc.org. 
Falling Fertility in Botswana Provides Chance for Future Economic Growth
GABORONE, May 5, 2017—The World Bank’s Forever Young report  highlights the fertility decline experienced by Botswana since the 1980s has put  the country at the edge of a window of demographic opportunity, decades before the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa. In 1980 the total fertility rate (TFR) was 6.2 children per woman and in 2015 it was 2.7 children per woman, the greatest fertility decline in Africa in the last three decades. As a consequence, the proportion of child dependents is declining rapidly, while the working-age population will increase by 29 percent between now and 2050.  The report’s findings were presented to government officials, academia, and other stakeholders in Gaborone in March. “Botswana will need to rethink its economic strategy to take advantage of the demographic opportunity offered by an increasing workforce,” said Elene Imnadze, World Bank Botswana Country Representative at the Forever Young Report presentation. “The country does not currently rely on labor as the main factor of production. Thus, the potential gains from the demographic opportunity can be severely constrained, as the link between GDP growth and employment is weak.” A shift of economic structure towards labor intensive sectors might be required to create more jobs for the new entrants. Just to hold current unemployment rates steady until 2050, Botswana needs to create 340,000 jobs. Its failure to do so could translate into an increase in unemployment, possibly even into social unrest. Luckily, demography per se will not add much to the fiscal burden of social sectors, such as education, health, and social protection, and it will ease in the case of education. Assuming coverage and spending per pupil stay constant at current levels, fiscal spending on education would decrease by more than 3 percentage points of GDP between now and 2050, as the number of school-age children declines. “This can provide the government with the necessary fiscal space to increase investment in the productivity of the workforce, focusing on the quality of education and skills demanded by the labor market,” said Jamele Rigolini, Lead Economist and Acting Social Protection Manager. If Botswana were to invest in the productivity of the workforce, and increase average annual labor productivity growth by 0.5 percentage points, the country would achieve by 2050 a 14 percent growth in  income per capita than with the current policy scenario, the report states. While demographic transition in Botswana is inevitable, a positive dividend from it is not. Botswana will have to act now and implement key policy reforms to allow current and future generations to harness it.
World Bank Vice President for Africa Makhtar Diop Visits Botswana
GABORONE, May 17, 2017 —The World Bank Vice President for Africa, Mr. Makhtar Diop, will visit Botswana from May 17-18, 2017. The purpose of the visit is to engage with the Government on the World Bank support to Botswana development priorities. During this two-day trip Mr. Diop will sign a loan agreement of the $145.5 million for the Emergency Water Security and Efficiency project jointly with the Minister of Finance and Economic Development, to support Botswana in its effort to enhance water efficiency and security and meet immediate needs of recent drought affected communities.  Mr. Diop will also discuss opportunities for Botswana to shift to a new growth model that would create sufficient, broad-based employment. This will be Mr. Diop’s first visit to the Republic of Botswana since his appointment as the World Bank’s Vice President for Africa in May 2012.  Under his leadership, the World Bank committed $9.4 billion to Sub-Saharan Africa in FY2016 to help tackle development including increasing food security and agricultural productivity; improving access to affordable, reliable, and sustainable energy, creating economic opportunities for Africa’s youth.
Global Wildlife Program
Why is the Global Wildlife Program needed? The illegal wildlife trade (IWT) is a global threat. The problem is particularly acute in Africa, where iconic species – the African elephant, white and black rhinos, and pangolins – are being poached to extinction. About 33,000 elephants are poached every year for their ivory. The rhino poaching crisis is also escalating. In 2007, 13 rhinos were poached in South Africa, in 2015, 1,338 rhinos were poached--1,175 of those in South Africa alone. As species are poached and illegally harvested at increasingly unsustainable levels, wildlife crime has become the fourth most lucrative illegal business after narcotics, human trafficking, and weapons. The presence of wildlife in protected areas ensures that an ecosystem can function and maintain natural capital (soil, forests, air, water, etc.) As natural resource crime such as poaching increases, it results in environmental degradation. This adversely affects ecosystem services, which in turn affects the survival of these communities who depend upon these services for livelihoods, fuel and food. The cost of environmental crime to developing countries is estimated to be more than $70 billion a year (World Bank 2014). To respond to the growing crisis and international call for action, the Global Environment Facility (GEF) in June 2015 launched the “Global Partnership on Wildlife Conservation and Crime Prevention for Sustainable Development” program also known as the Global Wildlife Program (GWP). What does the Global Wildlife Program aim to do? The GWP is a World-Bank led global partnership that promotes wildlife conservation and sustainable development by combatting illicit trafficking in wildlife. This seven-year, $131 million grant program is expected to leverage an additional $704 million in additional co-financing from a wide range of partners to promote investments across Africa and Asia. By approaching the poaching crisis holistically through various country projects and a larger global project, it seeks to reduce both the supply and demand that drives the illegal wildlife trade, and protect species and habitats through integrated landscape planning.   GWP’s priority and immediate focus is combating wildlife poaching, trafficking, and demand. The program also focuses on improving wildlife management, providing livelihood opportunities through tourism, and improving governance throughout the supply chain for illegal wildlife products. In addition, the program will support integrated landscape management, land use zoning and natural resource management best practices. Through its global and country projects, the GWP will:Promote community-based natural resource management and tourism development: Often in challenging political environments.Help countries achieve their biodiversity goals: It will support the implementation of country priorities identified in the National Biodiversity Strategy and Action Plan, Elephant Action Plan and other wildlife and tourism national strategies.Accelerate learning: It will develop an online repository of information and conduct training and capacity building workshops to ensure knowledge exchange between countries, partners and other stakeholders. It will provide opportunities for regional and global knowledge exchanges.Enhance collaboration: It will foster intergovernmental cooperation, leverage monitoring and evaluation and geospatial tools, increase intelligence sharing to track criminals, collaborate on efforts around anti-money laundering, capture lessons learned, apply best practices, and innovative communication strategies.  In addition, it will include a component to promote best practices in ports and collaboration between African and Asian countries and agencies involved in reducing maritime transport of illegal wildlife products, especially ivory.Strengthen partnerships: It will build synergies with the International Consortium on Combating Wildlife Crime (ICCWC). It is a collaboration between the CITES Secretariat, INTERPOL, UNODC, the World Customs Organization and the WBG, which has been a partner to ICCWC since 2010.Implement a monitoring and evaluation framework:  It will develop and deploy a monitoring system for the program to track program progress and serve as an integral tool to promote synergies amongst national projects.Coordinate programs with the GEF Secretariat and implementing agencies: To ensure coordination amongst projects within and beyond the program. This will be an important mechanism for implementation of GEF-6 (2014-2018) Biodiversity Strategy program three which is focused on preventing the extinction of known threatened species. The GWP also aims to target other focal areas of the GEF-6: Biodiversity, Land Degradation, Climate Change and Sustainable Forest Management.Promote donor coordination: As part of ongoing engagement with key international donors, the program will serve as a platform to assess the current state of international funding to tackle illicit trafficking in wildlife. The GWP released the first-ever review of international donor funding for combatting illegal wildlife trade in Africa and Asia, which shows that over $1.3 billion was committed by 24 international donors since 2010. The report serves as a baseline the donor community can build upon, which in consultation with recipient countries, can establish the future state vision for IWT financing. This will facilitate sharing of lessons learned and inform strategic efforts to fill financing gaps for priority intervention areas. Who are the GWP partner countries? Collectively, the GWP countries make up an incredible repository of biodiversity and potential for sustainable de¬velopment. The program’s integrated platform will sup¬port national governments and development partners to reduce the impacts of wildlife poaching and trafficking, and promote livelihood activities by local communities. In Africa, the GWP has programs in Botswana, Cameroon, Ethiopia, Gabon, Kenya, Malawi, Mali, Mozambique, the Republic of Congo, South Africa, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. In Asia, programs are in Afghanistan, India, Indonesia, the Philippines, Thailand, and Vietnam. The implementing agencies channeling the funds to the governments or other partners for the national projects are the World Bank Group, United Nations Development Programme (UNDP), United Nations Environment Programme (UNEP), and the Asian Development Bank (ADB). The GWP also collaborates with the International Consortium to Combat Wildlife Crime (ICCWC) and other donors and conservation partners to implement an integrated approach for biodiversity conservation, wildlife crime prevention and sustainable development, including:Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS)The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) SecretariatWorld Wildlife Fund (WWF)International Union for the Conservation of Nature (IUCN)TrafficWildAid 
Ramping up Nature-Based Tourism to Protect Biodiversity and Boost Livelihoods
A World Bank project in the Okavango Delta in northern Botswana is having an impact on the local economy while valuing wildlife at the same time, which are threatened by poaching and human-wildlife conflict. Over 150 young people received training in the tourism industry, nearly 100 of which are now gainfully employed in the field. By creating employment for local people in tourism they receive tangible economic benefits from the presence of wildlife alive, rather than dead.   The theme for this year’s International Day for Biological Diversity, celebrated May 22, is biodiversity and sustainable tourism to coincide with the observance of 2017 as the International Year of Sustainable Tourism for Development. The program in the Okavango is proof that promoting biodiversity and economic growth through tourism is one way to reach win-win solutions for people and wildlife.   Over the past two years, the World Bank has ramped up efforts and reengaged in tourism through new initiatives due to a growing demand from countries to alleviate poverty through jobs and growth, while also protecting wildlife and conserving ecosystems. The tourism sector is expected to grow by 3.6% in 2017 and 3.9% per year globally over the next 10 years, according to the World Travel & Tourism Council. In 2016, travel and tourism contributed $7.6 trillion, or 10.2%, to total GDP, and the industry provided jobs to one in 10 people. In developing countries that depend on their natural capital assets, the figures can be equally as impressive:A recent economic assessment of tourism in Kenya shows travel and tourism contribute 10.5% of GDP, and provide nearly 550,000 jobs. It shows wildlife tourism “not only generates greater economic growth than other forms of tourism, but also has potential to do more to address poverty challenges” because wildlife tourism is more pro-poor, due to its closer linkages with the rural economy. Nature-based tourism has been identified in the country’s development blueprint, Vision 2030.In Tanzania, home of the Serengeti and Mount Kilimanjaro, nature-based tourism accounts for about 10% of GDP.In Namibia, 19% of all employment (direct and indirect) has been attributed to nature-based tourism.In the Maldives, tourism is the major source of government revenue that finances health and education. "A big male elephant that tourists can come see over the course of its lifetime will generate more money and more benefit for people and the nation,” said Professor Lee White, Executive Secretary of Gabon’s National Parks Agency, in a recent interview with the Global Wildlife Program. White stressed the importance of garnering support for the presence of wildlife from local communities. Creating jobs is one way to do that. “It’s one thing fighting cross-border poachers who are coming to poach in Gabon but if you are fighting with the villagers living around the parks you are going to lose.” Client demand for nature-based tourism projects is growing According to a recent portfolio review, there are nearly 25 World Bank projects, totaling over $800 million, with a nature-based tourism component or activity. An additional seven projects with investments of more than $115 million are in the pipeline. “The review shows there are a lot of entry points and many small tourism components in projects, but most importantly it shows there are opportunities and the potential to do a lot more in nature-based tourism,” said World Bank Lead Economist Urvashi Narain. Nature-based tourism can be a significant source of income for local communities and rural households, who often live in marginal areas with few pathways out of poverty. However, Narain said the relationship between nature-based tourism and poverty reduction is not always straightforward. Local communities near protected areas sometimes carry a large share of the costs of protected areas in the form of restricted access to land and natural resources and crop damage due to raiding wildlife. The World Bank Group supports interventions that strengthen the linkages between nature-based tourism and poverty reduction. “You have to include the poor people living near protected areas in order to protect wildlife,” said Narain.  
The Deputy Chairperson of the African Union visits the World Bank Group
  Deputy Chairperson of the African Union Commission (AUC), Mr. Kwasi Quartey, made a courtesy visit on Executive Directors representing African Constituencies at the World Bank Group (WBG) on June 9, 2017.  The meeting was hosted by Mr. Andrew N. Bvumbe, Executive Director for the Africa Group 1 Constituency. Two main issues were discussed, namely (i) human capacity building as a foundation of development, and (ii) challenges in health care delivery in Africa. The meeting acknowledged the importance of capacity building in Africa as a foundation of development. It was pointed out that there were over 460 million youth in Africa who could be an important resource in Africa’s economic transformation. With appropriate education and training, the youth could be transformed to be drivers of growth and development.   Health was said to be another major challenge to development in Africa as there is, among other challenges, an inadequate supply of well-trained doctors and health care specialist. There is an estimated requirement of 1.3 million additional doctors to close the skills gap. In the longer term, a solution would lie in the creation of regional training institutions where African governments would share costs while in the short term, tele-medicines could improve access to specialists. The Train-to-task was also proposed as an option available for potential increase of critical and affordable skills supply, especially to rural Africa. Mr. Bvumbe informed the AUC Deputy Chairperson that a Private Sector Window was established under IDA18, a which would support private sector investments in Africa. In addition, the initiative on domestic resource mobilization would also unlock additional resources.     
Botswana Takes Action to Assess and Prevent Financial Crimes
GABORONE, March 14, 2017—Botswana has just completed a National Anti-Money Laundering (AML) and Counter Financing of Terrorism (CFT) Risk Assessment. The National Risk Assessment (NRA) was supported by the World Bank which resulted in the adoption by officials of a National AML/CFT Risk Assessment Report and Action Plan presented at a three-day workshop. Botswana is the eleventh country in Africa to do so. In 2012, an international obligation was adopted by the Financial Action Task Force (FATF) requiring all countries to undertake a National AML/CFT Risk Assessment. The goal behind this was to bring about stronger more effective AML/CFT systems by identifying the risks a country faces and targeting scarce resources in a way that mitigates the identified risks, threats, and vulnerabilities. Prior to 2012, there was no precedent of a country that had undertaken a National AML/CFT Risk Assessment (NRA), and because such a task was regarded as complicated and daunting, the World Bank’s Financial Integrity Unit saw it fit to develop a National AML/CFT Risk Assessment Tool. The tool was developed to aid countries that needed assistance and guidance on how to commence such an assessment. Botswana was one of the countries that requested the World Bank Group’s help with conducting the assessment in 2014.  To date, the World Bank’s NRA Tool has been used by more than 40 countries to complete NRAs, 30 more countries have commenced NRAs using the World Bank NRA Tool, and another 30+ countries have requested World Bank technical assistance and the NRA Tool to support the commencement of their NRAs.    “The World Bank’s National Risk Assessment tool helped to add value to this important work by providing a more thorough understanding of how to assess actual money laundering and terrorist financing risks using clear data,” said Elene Imnadze, World Bank Botswana Country Representative at the NRA workshop. “The World Bank stands ready to support Botswana’s work and help it become a leading African country in effectively meeting international obligations.” The recently completed process involved more than 50 officials representing approximately 20 collaborating ministries and a number of agencies. Officials with AML/CFT expertise worked to collect and analyze large amounts of data, information and statistics to identify and prioritize the main money laundering and terrorist financing risks Botswana faces.  Risks are assessed by collecting data and information to measure “threats” and “vulnerabilities.”  Threats are existing (internal or external) circumstances and systems that cannot be eliminated, so they must be mitigated, like illegal activities abroad that cross borders into Botswana, and even Botswana’s own financial system.  Vulnerabilities are the internal mitigation systems, for example effectiveness of customs and border control systems, and controls in the financial sector.  When the effectiveness of the vulnerabilities are measured (and rated) against the various threat levels, these comparisons produce an overall risk level which indicates to a country how well existing systems are mitigating the risks, and where improvements are needed.  Such system of assessment also enables officials to prioritize risks so that resources can be more effectively targeted to mitigate them.   The money laundering risks identified at the workshop were based on data indicating higher levels of criminality linked to wildlife poaching, weak controls in the diamond sector, auto theft, and financial crimes like tax evasion and corruption.  Weaknesses in national AML/CFT controls systems were identified in the legal frameworks and effectiveness of implementation.  The completion of the National AML/CFT Risk Assessment indicates that Botswana has complied with an important international AML/CFT obligation which other countries in the world are in the process of undertaking.  “We appreciate the assistance we have received from the World Bank throughout the duration of the National Risk Assessment project. We are also grateful for the NRA working groups and the selflessness and enthusiasm they exhibited during the course of the project. Moving forward I hope we will be able to strengthen our legal framework, which is our first line of defense in the fight against money laundering and terrorist financing,” remarked Elaina Gonsalves, Deputy Secretary for economic and finance policy in the Ministry of Finance and Economic Development. The identified risks and threats from the National AML/CFT Risk Assessment will assist the officials to strengthen country systems and apply appropriate control measures in order to fight money laundering, terrorist financing, and related underlying criminal activities including corruption, pursuant to international AML/CFT obligations*. This system, once fully operational, will stem illicit financing flows (IFFs) and contribute to stronger economic development, shared prosperity, and help reduce poverty.  *International AML/CFT obligations are based on various international treaties & conventions.  These obligations are specified in the 40 Recommendations of the Financial Action Task Force Against Money Laundering/Terrorist Financing (FATF).  These can be found at: http://www.fatf-gafi.org/publications/fatfrecommendations/documents/fatf-recommendations.html
アフリカ地域
概要 2015年のサブサハラ・アフリカの成長率は、主に石油をはじめとする商品価格の下落を反映し、2014年の4.5%を下回る4.1%となる見込みです。 金属その他の主要一次産品の輸出国では、一次産品価格の下落に伴い活動が鈍化する一方、ほとんどの低所得国では、インフラ投資と農業拡大により堅調な成長が続くと予想されています。非石油部門、特にサービス部門では成長が続き、2016年以降の成長率を押し上げると見られます。低位中所得国と高位中所得国では、公共投資の増大と観光業の回復により成長が促進されるでしょう。 詳細は2015年度年次報告書(PDF)をご覧ください。  活動 世界銀行グループは、アフリカ地域の経済成長と貧困削減、経済的多様化、また新たな包括的開発フレームワークに重点をおいて取り組みを行っています。 また、以下の分野に優先的に取り組んでいます。農業生産性の向上小農家に対する技術面や資金面での支援、アグリビジネスへの投資、水源管理、また気候変動に優しい農業を推進しています。エネルギーの確保安価で安定的かつ持続可能なエネルギーの供給の他、気候変動適応と防災が最重要課題です。地域統合地域間の連携を強め、経済の活性化と生産性の強化を図ります。都市化水、衛生、交通、住居、権力とガバナンスの管理が、都市化による生産性と収入向上の鍵となります。質の高い人的資本としての若年層の育成雇用のニーズと人材のギャップを埋めるべく、若年層の技術スキル向上支援を行っています。 詳細はアフリカ地域ページ(英語)をご覧ください。
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