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South Asia Program on Hydromet, Climate Services and Resilience
Impact of Disasters and Climate Risks in South Asia South Asia is highly prone to weather and water-related disasters such as flooding, drought, thunderstorms and cyclones. In the past two decades, more than 50% of South Asians, or nearly 750 million people, have been affected by at least one natural disaster. The social and economic costs of such hazards is staggering and left almost 230,000 people dead and $45 billion in damages between 1970 and 2008. In India, direct losses incurred from natural disasters in 2003 equaled  2% of the country’s GDP and about 12% of its revenue. Pakistan has suffered $16 billion in losses since 2005. In Bhutan, damages caused by the 2009 Aila cyclone edged $17 million.
Dhankuta Dazzles with Its Cleanliness Drive
As the clock strikes 6 AM, a municipal tractor in Hile, Dhankuta winds its way across town, collecting waste destined to a landfill 13 kilometers downhill. While most Nepali towns still struggle with solid waste problems, Dhankuta has established a well-managed disposal system that even makes money.  In July 2017, Dhankuta was declared the ‘cleanest city’ in the country, bagging the top spot worth NRs. 1,000,000 in an annual contest sponsored by the Government of Nepal’s Solid Waste Management Technical Support Center (SWMTC). Dhankuta was placed second in the contest last year, which awards numbers to municipalities based on their efforts in solid waste management, drainage and sewerage system, greening and beautification. “We were not particular about cleanliness up until about a decade ago,” says Lal Chandra Gongba Tamang, former President of the Dhankuta chapter of Federation of Nepalese Chamber of Commerce and Industries (FNCCI). “People littered plastic everywhere.  That choked our drains and frequently spattered filth on our streets.” When problems became untenable Dhankuta locals got together to discuss solutions. That was in the year 2009. In the years since, they established a landfill in Salleri, at the foothills of a forest  – spread over an area of 30 ropanis (around 642 sq.ft.) at a cost of NRs. 40 million – to handle 10 tons of waste every day for the next 25 years. Then they declared Dhankuta ‘plastic-free’. Today the municipality is visibly spick-and-span. Garbage cans dot the streets and are emptied regularly. Dhankuta residents consider cleanliness as part of their regular civic duties. The municipality employs 16 sanitation workers, who visit different routes each day to ensure all wards under the municipality are covered. They sweep up public places and street corners every day, while the streets in front of houses and shops are swept clean by owners themselves. According to a report published by the World Bank in 2015, nearly 7000,000 tons of waste is annually generated in Nepal’s cities. Out of this, less than 50 percent is collected, while most of the waste is haphazardly dumped. Although solid waste management can make up to 50 percent of a municipality’s annual budget, many municipalities do not earn any revenue while providing waste management services.  Dhankuta is, then, an exception to the norm. The Dhankuta landfill site occupies the center of this unique model where three tractors tow in waste from 10 wards every morning. While landfills elsewhere battle stench and filth, the Dhankuta municipality has actually designed and built a garden on top of the buried waste. The bouncy garden, carpeted in green and spotted with pretty seasonal flowers, is the pride of the entire municipality. Locals, especially children, entertain themselves at the mini-park, and over 100 groups of outsiders have visited the ‘garden’ to learn how the model might be copied.When Waste Means Business Locals now recycle and reuse materials they would earlier have thrown into the garbage. The municipality has trained households to segregate biodegradable and non-biodegradable waste. Most households repurpose biodegradables as manure or cattle feed. This has drastically cut down on the waste. Thus, the landfill load has also eased. Bechan Sardar, who drives one of the municipal tractors, explains, “People now realize that bio-degradable waste pollutes, hence only around 10 percent of such waste reaches the landfill.” As the first load arrives, sanitation workers sort through paper, plastic and metal. Then another group reclaims the waste for reuse. The municipality has auctioned off reusables to Kaushal Thapa, a local entrepreneur, for an annual royalty of NRs. 50,000. While this may seem nominal, the enterprise provides regular jobs to nine people, while also producing raw materials for enterprises. Thapa used to run a scavenging business since a decade ago, with his staff visiting houses to collect waste materials. But once the landfill was established, he realized that this could be a valuable source for his business. “I talked to municipal authorities about working together to reduce waste,” Thapa explains. As per their agreement, Thapa’s staff visit the landfill every day and sort reusable waste, which he sells to enterprises as far away as Dharan, Itahari, Biratnagar and even Jogbani in India. “If five tractors of waste was buried in the landfill site earlier, now barely two tractors is buried each day, and the rest is put to good use. I am satisfied with the profits, and happy that I am helping keep my place clean,” Thapa says. 
Cleaning Up Their Act
Dhankuta, a municipality in Eastern Nepal, was declared as the ‘cleanest city’ in Nepal this year. Thanks to its excellent solid waste management initiatives, it bagged the top spot in an annual contest sponsored by the Government of Nepal’s Solid Waste Management Technical Support Center (SWMTC). But there is more to it than simple management – this is actually a triumph of the people who worked to make their city cleaner, one idea at a time.A Worm’s-Eye View Dhankuta residents have adopted an eco-friendly method of upcycling waste – vermicomposting, or producing manure with the help of earthworms – is now commonplace. The municipality has trained over 200 residents in the method. One of the first residents trained, Yashoda Shakya from Zero Point, is now a local expert. The pleasant-faced homemaker is often kept busy with her responsibilities inside her home and out, as a member of various cleanliness and management committees. But she makes it a point to take time out to segregate the waste produced by her household, and cut up the bio-degradable waste into tiny pieces. “This makes it more palatable for the earthworms,” she explains, “We must also avoid putting in waste that is oily, hot or sour.” Shakya precisely follows every step of the process – preparing a bed for earthworms out of sawdust or cotton clothes; spreading finely layered bio-degradable waste over the bed, placing earthworms, and then securing the bin with a jute sack. Within three to six months, the bin produces rich black manure that Shakya spreads over her kitchen garden. Even the water drained from the bin is used as manure for flowers. Her garden in the third floor produces organic onions, garlic, chili, coriander, spinach and tomatoes that her family enjoys throughout the year. “I started this because I love nature, and the idea of managing waste efficiently appeals to me,” she says. “I have reaped multiple benefits. Not only is my house clean, but I use the compost for my thriving kitchen garden and even earn good money from it.” The money is earned through earthworms, which she raises with great care. She sold 15 kilos worth last year to the municipality – at a decent rate of NRs. 3,000 (USD 30) per kilo. “If each household, especially in city areas, managed their waste in this manner, imagine how clean our streets would be !” she says with the beautiful smile that never seems to leave her face. While the process might seem cumbersome to some, Shakya hastens to assure that it is easy. “All I need is a bin and maybe 15 minutes each day to tend to it,” she says. She also recounts an incident her trainer told them, “Our trainer was on a visit to States, to learn more about this process. When she visited a house and queried where the earthworms were kept, she was astonished to learn that they were right under the couch she was sitting in, in the drawing room! This just proves how odor-free and mess-free this process is.” Shakya’s family is fully involved in the process – her husband helps her sort through waste, while her mother-in-law patiently shreds paper into bits as she sits outside in the courtyard. “They are really helpful, but it’s actually so easy and useful that I don’t mind doing it by myself !” she ends the conversation by turning back to the curry she’s making, seasoned with a generous bunch of coriander plucked fresh from her garden.Nepali First Meanwhile, in Ward Number 5, the Mathlo Kopche Tole Lane Committee (TLO) got together to test something innovative.“We wanted to attract tourists and promote our culture,” explains Govinda Rai, President of the TLO.The committee decided to paint all houses a uniform orange.“The color orange signifies that Dhankuta is famous for its juicy oranges,” Rai explains. “This also unifies all of us in a single bond, reminding us that we are all Nepali first before anything else,” says Komal Rai, Vice President of the Dhankuta Bazar Management Committee. A Man with a Mission One of the prime forces behind the change in Dhankuta is Upendra Khanal, Head of the Environment Division at the Municipality.“Not too long ago locals felt that waste management was singularly the municipality’s duty, and that they were entitled to discard waste as they wanted. Now they realize that that cleanliness benefits everyone,” he says.He then lists his challenges.“The biggest challenge is achieving behavioral change at the household level.  Once people hold themselves to account for the waste they produce, then half the battle is won,” he says.Khanal points to the challenge of sustaining the waste management system, considering that it is expensive and logistically tricky. The municipality collected NRs. 14 Lakh in user fees for solid waste management from households over the last nine months. Till last year, a big chunk of municipal expenses was borne by the World Bank funded Output Based Aid for Solid Waste Management. The program provided subsidies against waste management targets. The municipality now generates a portion of its own revenues, but is actively looking for other ways to ensure long-term sustainability.As the population increases, so will the amount of waste. Dhankuta’s 10 ton of waste per day might seem meager compared to Kathmandu’s 457 metric tons of solid waste per day (CBS data, 2013), but Khanal is aware that the number will multiply quickly, and steps need to be taken beforehand.Khanal also sees the need to build better infrastructure around the landfill, ensure extra amenities to people living nearby, procure a specially designed garbage truck, upgrade to a more advanced waste treatment facility, and provide additional training for the disposal of hazardous waste.Even when talking of an issue generally considered technical and dry, Khanal’s eyes shine with joy and pride. He believes in practicing what he preaches – meaning that up to 70 percent of the energy requirements of his household are met by biogas alone. He also practices vermicomposting, and the vegetables in his kitchen garden are a sight to behold. Last year, he even demonstrated the possibility of managing solid waste to generate energy to the then Prime Minister KP Oli through a television program, and was lauded for his efforts. “We have not met all our goals,” he says frankly, “but we’re getting there, we have definitely made a promising beginning.” Yet, he does not expect the changes to take root overnight.“It’s difficult to let go of old habits,” he says, “No one wants extra work. But once people understand that they have everything to gain, everyone will chip in.”Giving an example of change, Khanal says, “The residents of an inaccessible place called Todke wanted to dispose of their waste correctly, so we encouraged them to build a simple local waste management system. Within a year, mothers noticed that their children were not falling ill as often as they were earlier. This is the subtle but significant transformation we hope to bring about.” 
Transparent Fiscal Architecture Can Help Meet Development Goals of Federal Nepal
Floods Impact Economic Growth KATHMANDU, September 17, 2017— As Nepal prepares for an ambitious shift from a unitary to a federal system of government, closer attention to sequencing political, financial and administrative decentralization will be key, says the World Bank in its latest Nepal Development Update. Starting in FY2018, a large proportion of federal spending is expected to be passed on to subnational governments, ultimately increasing public spending. However, the Update cautions that unresolved issues surrounding the implementation of the new federal architecture could challenge budget execution, particularly during the upcoming year. Nepal’s new fiscal federalism system suggests a marked asymmetry between stronger decentralization of spending responsibilities and relatively unchanged low decentralization of tax collection powers, notes the Update. Similar imbalances hold true between regions across the country.  “The subnational governments will play an increasingly critical role in Nepal’s public expenditures,” said Takuya Kamata, the World Bank’s Country Manager for Nepal. “A system of fiscal transfers that is designed for transparency and predictability and supported by a small set of simple rules, could go a long way in helping meet the development objectives of federal Nepal,” he said. The Update makes four key observations:Many functional assignments are “shared” among the three levels of government. A negotiated delineation of devolved responsibilities are critical first steps. A detailed costing of devolved responsibility will also be critical.Revenue collection and tax administration remain relatively unchanged and highly centralized, with limited existing tax bases for subnational governments.The resulting mismatch between revenue collection and service provision could be closed through inter-governmental transfers.  Having a transparent, evidence-based formula for equalization among provinces is critical to design an effective depoliticized process.The constitution makes adequate provisions for prudent debt management in a decentralized system. However, these provisions could be developed in greater detail though a fiscal responsibility-type law that provides clear, simple, yet flexible rules for behavior of different levels of government. In addition, the creation and deployment of accounting and debt reporting systems should remain critical short-term priorities. Meanwhile, in its semi-annual assessment of economic performance, the Update notes that economic activity in Nepal, which rebounded strongly in FY2017, has been impacted once again by severe floods affecting over a third of the country. Damaging floods in mid-August are likely to affect agriculture, economic activity, and poverty reduction efforts even up to FY2018.  “Economic growth is expected to be lower than earlier forecast and is expected to average 4.5 percent over the next two fiscal years” says Sudyumna Dahal, World Bank Economist and principal author of the Update. The floods have affected over 5 percent of the total population, with several districts recording the heaviest rainfall in 60 years. Over 80 percent of land in the southern Tarai, country’s food basket, was affected. Estimates of destroyed crops at 64,000 hectares will likely lead to a weak agricultural output in FY2018. Government revenue collection in FY2017 reached a new record, while government spending accelerated as well. However, more than 60 percent of the capital budget was spent in the last quarter of the fiscal year while expenditure remained significantly below the planned budget, a perennial problem in Nepal. The era of balanced budgets has ended with the fiscal deficit reaching an estimated 3.3 percent of GDP in FY2017 and expected to increase going forward as well. Additionally, the current account, which turned into a deficit in FY2017, is also expected to deteriorate further in FY2018. Import growth should remain strong, while growth of exports and remittances are expected to remain sluggish. Recorded departures of migrant workers have continued to slow, reaching a five-year low in FY2017. Given the geopolitical tensions between Gulf Cooperation Council countries and Qatar—a major destination of migrant workers—departures are not expected to improve significantly. Read the full Nepal Development Update here.
World Bank to Continue Support for Technical Education and Vocational Training in Nepal
Approves US$ 60 Million Credit for EVENT II Project KATHMANDU, September 28, 2017 – The World Bank has approved a $60 million credit to support a second phase of the Enhanced Vocational Education and Training Project in Nepal. EVENT II is designed to help the country improve equitable access to market relevant training programs and to strengthen the delivery of Technical Education and Vocational Training (TEVT). In Nepal TVET is an important intermediary between youth and the labor market through the provision of pre-employment skills.  Between 450,000 and 500,000 Nepali youth come of working age every year, most of whom will enter either the domestic or the foreign labor market with limited education and skills. On the other hand, the annual intake capacity in short-term and long-term TVET programs in the country was between 100,000 and 120,000 in 2016. While TVET has grown in size over time with formal and informal providers across a variety of government and non-government entities, it continues to face the challenges of quality training for domestic and foreign labor markets, inclusion and cohesion. “Skill development of the workforce through investment in human capital including technical and vocational education and training are critical for the successful implementation of the country’s emerging jobs agenda,” said Takuya Kamata, the World Bank’s Country Manager for Nepal. EVENT II is designed to support the TVET sector in Nepal at different levels—the system, the institution, and the individual. Activities include upgrading the quality of TVET facilities, supporting key human resources that are critical for the quality of service delivery, improving access for disadvantaged groups, supporting missing links between training and placement to help youth find work, improving the availability of information linking skills supply and demand, and improving governance through performance-based funding of training providers.  The project will also support migrants through training and skill testing and certification. “While there is substantial underemployment and informal employment dominates, an increased focus on skills and employability will help Nepal benefit from its potential youth dividend,” said Sangeeta Goyal, Senior Economist and the Bank’s Task Team Leader for the project. 
Nepal: Enhanced Vocational Education and Training Project
World Bank News Release: Loan and Credit Summary KATHMANDU, September 28, 2017 – The World Bank has approved the following project today:Enhanced Vocational Education and Training Project (EVENT) II IBRD Credit: US$60 millionTerms: Maturity = 38 years, Grace = 6 yearsProject ID: P163018 Project Description: The Project Development Objectives are to improve equitable access to market relevant training programs and to strengthen the technical and vocational education and training (TVET) sector service delivery in Nepal.   
South Asia Loses Growth Lead, Can Regain through Action
Countries should address growth constraints with policies and reforms WASHINGTON, October 8, 2017 –  After leading global growth for two years, South Asia has fallen to second place, after East Asia and the Pacific. The region’s slowdown is due to both temporary shocks and longer-term challenges. Regional economic growth is expected to slow to 6.9 percent in 2017 from 7.5 percent in 2016, but growth could rebound to 7.1 percent in 2018 with the right mix of policies and reforms.   The just released twice-a-year South Asia Economic Focus (SAEF) finds that the slowdown in South Asia has mostly been driven by internal factors, most notably in India, such as a decrease in private investment, and an increase in imports and government spending. This edition, Growth out of the Blue, explores the potential of night-time light satellite imagery to improve measurement and understanding of economic activities.                                  “While growth rates in South Asia largely remain robust given the economic shocks that some countries in the region have faced, countries should continue to actively address their growing trade and fiscal deficits,” said Annette Dixon, the World Bank South Asia Region Vice President. “With the right mix of policies to respond to challenges, we remain confident that South Asian countries can accelerate their growth to create more opportunities and prosperity for their people.” Given its weight in the region, India sets the pace for South Asia. Its Gross Domestic Product (GDP) growth is expected to slow down to 7.0 percent in 2017, due to surging imports and declining private investment along with the effects from withdrawing large amounts of banknotes and the introduction of the Goods and Services Tax (GST). However, India’s growth is expected to rebound to 7.3 percent in 2018. Pakistan continues its upward growth performance with economic activity expected to accelerate to more than 5 percent this and next year, if deficits are well-managed and external stability is maintained. Nepal has seen an economic rebound after the earthquake and trade disruption in 2015, but growth is moderating this year. In Bangladesh, industrial production continued to accelerate, export growth slowed, and fiscal deficits increased. Overall, South Asian economies stand to gain from continued recovery in advanced economies, which are their largest export markets.   The report also highlights that South Asia was once at the cutting edge in economic measurement and analysis, pioneering techniques such as the use of household surveys. With the rise of big data, traditional ways to measure economic phenomena like prices and GDP can be supplemented. To improve economic measurement in South Asia, a greater reliance on big data may help, but a clear agenda toward stronger statistical systems is a necessity. “We’re very excited about the potential of adopting new sources of data to improve our understanding of economic activity. Nightlight data, for instance, is easy to obtain, regularly updated, and very informative,” said World Bank South Asia Region Chief Economist Martin Rama. “In this report, it allows us to shed light on recent episodes and to provide a new perspective on how policies and shocks impacted the region, down to the local level.” Factsheet: Many South Asian Countries Have Potential to Accelerate GrowthAfghanistan’s economic recovery remains slow with continuing insecurity curbing private investment and consumer demand. Growth is projected to accelerate slightly from 2.6 percent in 2017 to 3.4 percent in 2018. However, with population growth of nearly 3 percent, such a level of economic growth means minimal income per capita growth. Sustained economic growth requires transforming the economy through better health and education, improved agriculture, and the development of the country’s mining resources. The economy in Bangladesh remains strong with accelerating industrial production and resilient services.  However, growth is expected to moderate this year. Deficits are widening as export growth and remittances have weakened, which should be monitored and addressed along with increasing stresses on the financial sector and uncertainties around the upcoming elections. Economic activity in Bhutan has kept growth strong with the economy expected to grow at 6.7 percent in 2017 and 6.9 percent in 2018. Hydropower projects, supportive policies combined with low inflation, a stable exchange rate and greater financial reserves have contributed to growth and poverty reduction. However, risks are emerging, including possible delays in hydropower construction and the slowdown in growth in India. India’s economic momentum has been affected from disruptions from the withdrawal of banknotes and uncertainties around the GST. Growth is expected to slow from 8.6 percent in 2015 to 7.0 percent in 2017. Sound policies around balancing public spending with private investment could accelerate growth to 7.3 percent by 2018. While sustained growth is expected to translate to continued poverty reduction, more focus could be made to help benefit the informal economy more.     In Maldives, GDP growth has rebounded to nearly 5 percent as the government embarks on several major infrastructure projects to help move Maldivians to the capital city Malé. Construction is expected to be a key driver of growth, with tourism also recovering. The country could better align economic activity with providing more employment opportunities, and better health as well as education services. In addition, it needs to prepare for the impacts of climate change. Nepal has seen an impressive economic recovery after disruptions from earthquakes and a trade blockade. Economic activity rebounded to 7.5 percent in 2017 through increasing government resources, spending, and remittances from abroad. Growth is expected to slow in 2018 due to the heaviest floods in decades, slow recovery of exports, and an increase in lending rates. In Pakistan, economic growth is expected to accelerate to more than 5 percent this and the next years if the country’s fiscal deficits are well managed and external stability is maintained. Efforts to reverse the trade and fiscal imbalances and continued implementation of reforms will be needed for sustaining and accelerating growth and improving welfare. Sri Lanka’s economic growth is projected to grow at 4.6 percent in 2017 and achieve 5 percent growth in the years ahead. Public finances and reserves have improved despite a high budget deficit and public debt. Frequent natural disasters continue to weaken economic performance and are likely to increase poverty. Accelerating reforms to promote competitiveness, better governance, and a more balanced budget are critical to ensure sustained growth and development.
国・地方レベルの緊急事態準備・対応(EP&R)システムに関する日本の専門知識の共有
近刊の世界銀行のレポートは、大規模自然災害による影響は年間消費にして5,200億ドルの世界的損失に相当し、毎年約2,600万人が貧困に陥る状況を作り出していると報告しています。機能的対応は感知される影響を軽減し、迅速な復興を可能にし、公衆の安全と経済に対する累積的な影響を低減させます。開発・人口動態の増大分を災害と緊急事態で失わないようにするには、それらと歩調を合わせた緊急事態準備・対応(EP&R)能力が必要です。この意味で、有効なEP&Rシステムは投資と国の発展を守る最前線です。 世界銀行の防災プログラムでは主に、リスクに配慮した土地利用計画、沿岸・河川洪水防止対策などの長期的プロセスと構造面でのリスク軽減対策に重点を置いてきました。その結果、この10年間に数々の小規模なEP&Rプロジェクトは実施されてきましたが、ようやく最近、イスタンブール地震リスク軽減プロジェクト(ISMEP)やバングラデシュ都市強靭化プロジェクトなどのプロジェクトを通じ、EP&Rを強靭な開発の主な要素とみなすようになりました。これらのプロジェクトの進行につれ、この分野で組織をまとめ、助言を与える内部の専門知識の獲得が課題として浮上しました。このタイプのプロジェクトに対する需要の増大と内部の専門知識の不足という二重のプレッシャーにより、緊急事態準備・対応における世界銀行グループ(WBG)の投資に関し、サービスの格差が拡大しました。 概要 2017年8月28日~9月3日、世界銀行対応準備(R2R)コミュニティオブプラクティス(CoP)、都市強靭性強化プログラム(CRP)、防災グローバル・ファシリティ(GFDRR)、世界銀行東京防災ハブは、シティネット横浜と共同で、東京と横浜で緊急事態準備・対応に関する技術知識交換(TKX)を開催し、それには5カ国のクライアントとTTL、日本とカナダの専門家が参加しました。この1週間にわたる革新的な知識交換は、次のような実際的テーマを重点として実施されました。
Sharing Japanese Expertise in Emergency Preparedness and Response (EP&R) Systems at National and Local levels
A recent World Bank report notes that the impact of extreme natural disasters is equivalent to a global $520 billion loss in annual consumption, and forces some 26 million people into poverty each year. A functional response reduces felt consequence and enables rapid recovery, reducing cumulative impacts to public safety and the economy. Emergency preparedness and response (EP&R) capacity must keep pace with development and demographics to ensure these gains are not lost because of disaster and emergencies. Consequently, a well capacitated EP&R system is the first line of defense for investments and country development. Many of the World Bank’s disaster risk management programs have largely focused on longer term process and structural risk reduction efforts, e.g. risk-sensitive land use planning, coastal and riverine flood defenses, etc. As a result, while several smaller scale EP&R projects have been implemented in the last decade, only recently, through projects, such as Istanbul Seismic Risk Mitigation Project (ISMEP) and the Bangladesh Urban Resilience Project, has EP&R been considered as a major component of resilient development.  As these projects matured, internal expertise to organize and advise in this area was challenging to obtain.  This dual pressure of increased demand for this type of project and limited supply of internal expertise has led to a growing service gap for the World Bank Group (WBG) investment in emergency preparedness and response. Overview On August 28 – Sep 3, 2017, the World Bank Ready2Respond (R2R) Community of Practice (CoP), City Resilience Program (CRP), Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), and the World Bank Disaster Risk Management Hub in Tokyo, in collaboration with CITYNET Yokohama, convened clients and TTLs from 5 countries together with experts from Japan and Canada for a Technical Knowledge Exchange (TKX) on Emergency Preparedness and Response in Tokyo and Yokohama. The week-long innovative learning exchange was structured around key practical themes: 
Statement regarding Nepal Grid Solar and Energy Efficiency Project
KATHMANDU, August 4, 2017 – The World Bank’s attention has been drawn to recent commentary in the media regarding the Grid Solar and Energy Efficiency Project, financed by the Bank. “We are yet to receive official communication from the concerned authorities on recent developments reported in the media. Therefore, it would be premature to speculate upon the World Bank’s future role in that project,” said Takuya Kamata, World Bank Country Manager for Nepal. “However, we can confirm that following extensive review, the award of contract managed by Nepal Electricity Authority under this project conforms with the procurement policies and practices adopted by the 189 member governments of the World Bank Group, as well as the financing agreement between the Government of Nepal and the Bank,” he added.    
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