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概要 2015年のサブサハラ・アフリカの成長率は、主に石油をはじめとする商品価格の下落を反映し、2014年の4.5%を下回る4.1%となる見込みです。 金属その他の主要一次産品の輸出国では、一次産品価格の下落に伴い活動が鈍化する一方、ほとんどの低所得国では、インフラ投資と農業拡大により堅調な成長が続くと予想されています。非石油部門、特にサービス部門では成長が続き、2016年以降の成長率を押し上げると見られます。低位中所得国と高位中所得国では、公共投資の増大と観光業の回復により成長が促進されるでしょう。 詳細は2015年度年次報告書(PDF)をご覧ください。  活動 世界銀行グループは、アフリカ地域の経済成長と貧困削減、経済的多様化、また新たな包括的開発フレームワークに重点をおいて取り組みを行っています。 また、以下の分野に優先的に取り組んでいます。農業生産性の向上小農家に対する技術面や資金面での支援、アグリビジネスへの投資、水源管理、また気候変動に優しい農業を推進しています。エネルギーの確保安価で安定的かつ持続可能なエネルギーの供給の他、気候変動適応と防災が最重要課題です。地域統合地域間の連携を強め、経済の活性化と生産性の強化を図ります。都市化水、衛生、交通、住居、権力とガバナンスの管理が、都市化による生産性と収入向上の鍵となります。質の高い人的資本としての若年層の育成雇用のニーズと人材のギャップを埋めるべく、若年層の技術スキル向上支援を行っています。 詳細はアフリカ地域ページ(英語)をご覧ください。
Southern Africa's Working-Age Population Presents Potential for Growth
PRETORIA, September 19, 2016 – Southern Africa could improve incomes per capita, reduce poverty and increase growth in five of its countries through generating jobs for its increasing number of young workers by 2050, according to a recently released World Bank Group report. But this chance may be hindered by the regions’ already high unemployment rate, if not tackled. The report: Forever young? Social policies for a changing population in Southern Africa, illustrates how today’s social policies can be shaped to reap benefits presented by  the region’s changing population leading to wealthier and more productive future generations, fostering growth and equity. It explores conditions necessary for the region to take full advantage on its growing working-age population. “Southern Africa has a chance to break intergenerational poverty by promoting social services that invest in the potential of its people from a very young age and by putting its highest number of people to work through harnessing its most valuable resource -- having an increasing number of youth present in the next three decades,” said Guangzhe Chen, World Bank Group Country Director for Southern Africa.But this is particularly challenging in an environment that is already plagued by very high joblessness”. The study which focuses on Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland shows that more of the population in these five countries will be of working-age by 2050. It argues that with fewer dependents per worker, fiscal resources will be freed for the promotion of human development and the employment of younger generations and that good social policies can help generate a virtuous cycles of equity and productivity. Between now and 2050, the working-age population in Botswana will increase by 29 percent, Lesotho by 36 percent, 53 percent in Namibia, and 43 percent in Swaziland. In South Africa the figure will be lower, 28 percent, yet representing an increase of almost 10 million people. By comparison, the report notes that the age structure in the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa will hardly have changed since 1950. To reap the advantage of this transition, Southern Africa will need to generate jobs for its increasing working-age population, and ensure that potential workers are equipped with the necessary skills and instruments to match the demand for labor. If this does not happen, the transition will add further pressure to already fragile labor markets: unemployment is already high in the region, reaching a staggering 47% among youth. Just to hold current low employment rates constant, Botswana will need to create an additional 340,000 jobs, Lesotho 400,000, Namibia 580,000, South Africa 7.1 million, and Swaziland 250,000. In addition, the region will at the same time need to bolster the employability of the millions of working-age population that have already completed their education, but lack the skills to work in a sophisticated and growing global economy, with continuous and remedial education, labor insertion programs and social assistance. The report recommends adjusting social policies to be inclusive and tailoring them towards promoting the human development of younger generations so that when the ratio of working age population peaks to about 70% percent in 2050, these young workers are adequately prepared for jobs that the economy requires to grow.  It recommends upgrading the quality of education through all the stages of education from early childhood development to basic and tertiary school which will make this workforce better equipped for skilled jobs in the future. The report finds that overall, Southern Africa’s generous social assistance systems which have higher fiscal allocations compared to most emerging economies, are mainly geared towards a “protection” role, with the bias towards the elderly. It argues that, they will need to shift to serve a dual objective of protecting the poor and vulnerable from shocks and promoting the human development of the population. This would lead to children that are more likely to be healthy and educated and to grow up to be productive adults. These productive and educated adults in turn will be more likely to raise healthy and educated children, thereby creating a sustainable intergenerational virtuous cycle that would increase incomes per capita, reduce poverty and increase growth. “Our research shows that a growing, well-educated labor force that is supported by efficient services during all stages in life can set countries on an inclusive and sustained growth path during this window of demographic opportunity. But if policies fail to change, a poorly skilled and unemployed workforce will likely be left to perpetuate the vicious cycle of poverty and inequality, ” said Lucilla Bruni, World Bank economist working on social protection and labor issues and one of the authors of the report. The study conducted simulation exercises which show that improving educational attainment could raise GDP per capita in 2050 in Swaziland and Lesotho by as much as 18 percent more than if current policies continue. They also show that raising employment ratios up to OECD levels could make South Africa’s GDP per capita quadruple rather than triple in the same time period. In Botswana, policies that stimulate higher productivity through better-quality education and technology could increase per capita income 14 percent more than in the business-as-usual scenario. Simulations also suggest that inclusive growth policies complement each other and that simultaneous implementation could lead to greater impacts than the contribution of each policy alone. It assets that if all policies went into effect at once, South Africa’s GDP per capita would almost quintuple rather than triple by 2050. It would more than triple in Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland, and almost triple in Namibia. The report notes that while good social policies help capitalize on this changing population structure, a sound macroeconomic environment, promotion of private-sector development, and the expansion of labor-intensive sectors are also essential. 
Fighting TB Among Southern Africa Mine Workers
Feb 26, 2016 -- The World Bank Group’s efforts to help Southern African countries combat the devastating tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in the mining sector got a boost earlier this month with a landmark $30 million grant from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The grant will support potentially transformative TB interventions in 10 Southern Africa countries, (i.e., Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe). The World Bank Group serves as the Secretariat of the Regional Coordinating Mechanism (RCM) for the Global Fund project. The Wits Health Consortium acts as the Principal Recipient of the grant, on behalf of the ten countries. TB is one of the world’s most deadly diseases, killing three people every minute. Each year, 9 million people develop TB, and 1.5 million die from the disease. TB is particularly a problem in the Southern Africa mining sector, a key driver for economic growth in the region. In South Africa alone, TB rates within the gold mining workforce are estimated at 2,500-3,000 cases per 100,000 individuals. This incidence is 10 times the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold of 250 per 100,000 for a health emergency. Factors that contribute to the high incidence of TB among mineworkers include prolonged exposure to silica dust, poor living conditions, high HIV prevalence, poverty, circular movement of mineworkers across provincial and national borders, and a poor cross-border health referral system. “We are committed to investing vigorously to reduce TB rates as much as possible,” said Mark Dybul, Executive Director of the Global Fund at the grant launch ceremony in Johannesburg, South Africa. “To end TB as an epidemic, we have to be effective here.” “TB is not only a disease of poverty, but it also creates poverty and is a threat to global health security.  Our goal in southern Africa is therefore to achieve the World Bank’s twin goals of ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity by 2030 through a targeted focus on addressing the drivers of TB in the mining sector,” said Dr. Patrick Osewe, Global Lead, Healthy Societies, World Bank Group, and Team Leader for the Southern Africa TB in the Mining Sector Initiative. The World Bank Group supports African countries affected by TB epidemics through the Southern Africa TB in the Mining Sector Initiative. The initiative  is a multi-stakeholder effort involving representatives from 10 countries, Ministries of Health, Mineral Resources, and, Labor; mining companies; current and ex-mineworkers’ associations; labor unions; development agencies; civil society, and research institutions. The launch of the Global Fund grant was part of a two–day regional meeting of the Southern African TB in the Mining Sector Initiative held in Johannesburg, South Africa. Representatives from countries attended, as well as representatives from the private sector, civil society, DFID, the Stop TB Partnership, WHO, Global Fund, the International Organization for Migration, and implementing partners. The meeting also sought to harmonize interventions funded by the Global Fund grant, the World Bank Group regional project, and existing country initiatives. In this vein, participants recommended that the mandate of the RCM for the Global Fund project be expanded to become the platform for coordinating all programs linked to addressing TB in the mining sector in Southern Africa, and not just interventions funded by the Global Fund. The World Bank Group is working to shape investments in the mining sector. In addition to the Global Fund grant, the Bank Group is investing $120 million in a regional project to scale up TB prevention and treatment in the mining sector in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Lesotho. Additionally, a £2 million grant from the UK Department for International Development, and $4 million provided by the World Bank Group Development Grant Facility, are helping to pilot catalytic activities for the regional initiative. To date, several significant achievements have been made in the collective effort to tackle TB in the mining sector in the region, including: (i) development of a cross-border tracking system for monitoring adherence to TB treatment for mineworkers; (ii) improvement of mineworkers’ living and working conditions by private sector companies; (iii) expanded and more accessible occupational health services to ex-mineworkers, linking ex-mineworkers to compensation services; (iv) increased advocacy on TB; and (v) new models for active TB case finding, diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, the initiative has led to a harmonized protocol for the management of TB, which ensures that TB patients within the mining sector, regardless of which country they may work in, receive the same treatment. 
Improving Africa’s School Feeding Programs: Analysis Sheds Light on Strengths, Challenges
WASHINGTON, June 9, 2016 – In Kenya, more than 1.5 million school children are fed a hot lunch of corn and legumes each day, the only meal many of them will have. More than 8.8 million South African students receive a cooked mid-morning meal, and those in the poorest provinces are also served lunch. Cabo Verde’s national school feeding program not only provides one hot meal a day to thousands of school children, it also employs more than 1,000 women from within the school communities.   For the first time, detailed data about national school meal programs are available in the newly-released Global School Feeding Sourcebook: Lessons from 14 Countries. Using case studies from around the world, including programs in nine countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the sourcebook provides a comprehensive analysis of school feeding programs to identify common themes, challenges and good practices.    “I think we are now at a stage where it’s not whether school feeding is important, it’s how to design and deliver school feeding,” said Andy Tembon, World Bank senior health specialist. “This sourcebook comes at a very important moment, because it gives us an idea of how to strengthen and how to scale up school feeding programs.”   According to the analysis, the strongest and most sustainable programs are those that respond to a community need, are locally-owned and incorporate some form of parental or community involvement. In Namibia, communities are expected to provide fuel, cooking utensils and storerooms. In Mali, school feeding programs have put schools at the heart of local development by promoting locally-owned meal programs. In Ghana, the government uses a digital school meals planner to develop nutritionally balanced school meals using local ingredients.   The sourcebook is the third in a series of analysis on school feeding by the World Bank, the World Food Programme (WFP) and the Imperial College London’s Partnership for Child Development (PCD). The first, Rethinking School Feeding (WB, 2009), highlighted the long-term social investment of school feeding, and its role as a short-term productive safety net for children and families. The second, the State of School Feeding Worldwide (WFP, 2013), shows that school feeding programs serve as many as 368 million students in almost every country in the world at a global cost of $75 billion.   Developed in response to demand from governments and development partners, the sourcebook offers guidelines for designing and implementing sustainable national food programs, as well as recommendations for strengthening existing programs. Nine Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries are included in the analysis: Botswana, Cabo Verde, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa. “School feeding programs can help to get children into school and help keep them there, increasing enrollment and reducing absenteeism,” said World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim and WFP’s Ertharin Cousins in a joint foreword. “While there are many successful models for rich countries, there is specific demand from governments in low and middle income countries for guidance on how to strengthen and scale up their national programs. This latest joint publication is a response to this demand.” Lesley Drake, lead editor of the analysis and PCD’s executive director said “the overall message from the sourcebook is that there is no ‘one size fits all’ for school feeding and there are many routes to success.” Additional key findings about school feeding programs in SSA countries in the sourcebook include:   Botswana: The government has successfully implemented its national school feeding program continuously for 45 years, witnessing enrollment growth and school attendance rates that are highly associated with the availability of food at school. There are a number of strengths, however, there is still room for improvement, and a need for more robust data, analysis and reporting. Cabo Verde: The government has repeatedly shown its commitment to a policy of universal coverage of school feeding programs in public pre-primary and primary schools, and is now revising the objectives to meet the changing needs of communities. The major challenge is how to meet the demand to provide healthy meals and support the local economy and agriculture, while keeping the program affordable. Cote d’Ivoire: In addition to increased school access, retention, and success, the school feeding program has sparked behavioral changes among children including hand washing, good eating habits, nutritional, and hygiene practices. For a sustainable program, the report calls for strengthened governance, capacity, monitoring and evaluation, as well as improving agricultural technical skills and the introduction of advanced agricultural technology and equipment. Ghana: School feeding in Ghana is decentralized and outsourced, relying on caterers for food procurement, preparation and distribution. This creates jobs for the communities, and allows schools to focus on education rather than food duties. While implementation of school feeding programs need political support and commitment, the report notes it is important for the government not to politicize the program, which can affect targeting and quality. Kenya: The country stands out for developing innovative and complementary school feeding programs, with both successes and challenges. The Njaa Marufuku Kenya (Eradicate Hunger in Kenya) program, under the Ministry of Agriculture, is geared toward agricultural development and capitalizes on the ministry’s agricultural expertise and integrates community food and nutrition security with school feeding. However, continued financing is a challenge. The Home Grown School Meals (HGSM) program, under the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, aims to tackle low school enrollment and attendance, high dropout rates and low academic achievement. As it transitions from World Food Programme support to being government led, the program would benefit from increased links to local agriculture. Mali: Launched three years ago, the national school feeding program has contributed to an increase in school enrollment and retention in primary schools, especially for girls. The program promotes locally-owned school feeding programs, benefitting communities through community organizations, providing training, and supporting smallholder famers. One challenge is that there has not been an impact evaluation on the program, so there is no significant data on its social and economic impacts.  Namibia: School feeding programs serve as an incentive for poor and/or marginalized learners, or those affected by HIV and AIDS to attend school more regularly and consistently perform better. However, in the past decade, the impact of the HIV pandemic, droughts, floods and the rising prices of food have shifted the program to a safety net or means of social protection rather than improved childhood nutrition. The government has increased funding to fully-finance the program, and there are also plans to expand, which will serve as an opportunity to improve it. Nigeria: In Osun State, the innovative system of checks and balances that has been developed over the years has ensured good governance and is a model of good practice within the country and the region. Cooks procure the food every two weeks for 50 children per cook, inspiring smallholder participation. However, the funding capacity is limited; the current budget is a strain on the finances of the state.  South Africa: The school nutrition program is designed to alleviate poverty, improve access to education and academic performance through good nutrition. Meals are provided daily to more than eight million children, and there are plans to reach more. Since the beginning of its program in 1994, community participation has been identified as the key to success, with parents encouraged to volunteer and help make decisions through School Governing Bodies. Developing links between school feeding and local agriculture production more systematically could result in greater community involvement in schools and even greater economic benefits. 
Grant to Fight TB in Southern Africa’s Mining Sector
PRETORIA, February 5, 2016— The Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria and a Regional Coordinating Mechanism (RCM) representing a group of 10 Southern African countries today signed a landmark grant to pioneer innovative models to reduce high rates of Tuberculosis (TB) in the mining sector. The US$30 million grant will support transformative interventions in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe. The World Bank Group serves as the Secretariat for the RCM while the Wits Health Consortium acts as the Principal Recipient of the Grant. “Gold miners in southern Africa have some of the highest rates of TB infection in the world, we are committed to investing vigorously to reduce rates as much as possible,” said Mark Dybul, Executive Director of the Global Fund. “To end TB as an epidemic, we have to be effective here.” The Grant links strongly to the World Bank Group’s twin goals of eradicating poverty and promoting shared prosperity by 2030. It is also aligned with its global strategy for health, nutrition, and population, which seeks to help countries expand access to quality, affordable health care; protect people from falling into poverty or worsening poverty due to illness; and promote investments in all sectors that form the foundation of healthy societies. ”TB is not only a disease of poverty, but it also creates poverty and is a threat to global health security.  Our goal in southern Africa is therefore to achieve our twin goals through a targeted focus on addressing the drivers of TB in the mining sector,” said Dr. Patrick Osewe, Lead Health Specialist, World Bank Health, Nutrition and Population Practice. TB is a significant problem within the Southern African mining industry. In South Africa alone, TB rates within the gold mining workforce are estimated at 2,500-3,000 cases per 100,000 individuals. This incidence is 10 times higher than the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold for a health emergency, and is also 2.5 to 3 times the incidence rate in the general population. Factors that contribute to the high incidence of TB among mineworkers include prolonged exposure to silica dust, poor living conditions, high HIV prevalence, poverty and a poor cross border health referral system. “Today represents the success of an initiative started in 2011 when three champions of the TB and Mining cause – Dr. Aaron Motsoaledi, Minister of Health of South Africa, Dr. Mphu Ramatlapeng, former Minister of Health of Lesotho; and Mr. Benedict Xaba, former Minister of Health of Swaziland, brought this issue to the attention of the Stop TB Partnership Board and Heads of State in the Southern Africa region,” said Dr. Lucica Ditiu, Executive Director of the Stop TB Partnership. The Southern Africa TB in the Mining Sector Initiative is an innovative multi-stakeholder effort involving representatives from the ten country coordinating mechanisms (CCM), Ministries  of Health, Mineral Resources, and, Labor; mining companies; current and ex-mineworkers’ associations; labor unions; development agencies; civil society, and research institutions. The Grant is the culmination of efforts that started in January last year with the submission of a joint proposal by the ten countries to the Global Fund. ”For over a century, we have dealt with a seemingly insurmountable challenge. With this Grant, we seek to force a paradigm shift in the way we have addressed TB in the mining sector and set new standards worthy of emulation,” noted Donald Tobaiwa, Chair, RCM.
La lucha contra la tuberculosis de los mineros en África meridional
Los esfuerzos del Grupo Banco Mundial por ayudar a los países de África meridional a combatir la devastadora epidemia de tuberculosis en el sector minero recibieron un impulso a principios de este mes. El Fondo Mundial de Lucha contra el Sida, la Tuberculosis y la Malaria entregó una histórica donación de USD 30 millones para este fin. Con los nuevos recursos se financiarán intervenciones potencialmente transformadoras en los siguientes 10 países de África meridional: Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, Sudáfrica, Swazilandia, Tanzanía, Zambia y Zimbabwe. El Grupo Banco Mundial actúa como la Secretaría del mecanismo de coordinación regional del proyecto del Fondo Mundial. Por su parte, la empresa Wits Health Consortium es la principal entidad receptora de la donación, en representación de los 10 países. La tuberculosis es una de las enfermedades más mortales en el mundo, provocando la muerte de tres personas cada minuto. Anualmente, 9 millones de habitantes contraen el mal, y 1,5 millones fallecen a causa de él. La tuberculosis es un problema sobre todo en el sector de la minería en África meridional, un motor clave para el crecimiento económico de la región. Solo en Sudáfrica, las tasas de tuberculosis que afectan a la mano de obra de la minería del oro se estiman en 2500 a 3000 casos por cada 100 000 individuos. La incidencia es 10 veces superior al umbral de 250 por cada 100 000 personas establecido por la Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS) para una emergencia sanitaria. Los factores que contribuyen a esta elevada incidencia de tuberculosis entre los mineros incluyen la prolongada exposición al polvo de sílice, las malas condiciones de vida, la alta prevalencia del VIH, la pobreza, el desplazamiento circular de los mineros a través de las fronteras provinciales y nacionales, y un deficiente sistema transfronterizo de derivación de casos a los centros de salud. “Nos hemos comprometido a invertir significativamente para reducir las tasas de tuberculosis tanto como sea posible”, dijo Mark Dybul, director ejecutivo del Fondo Mundial en la ceremonia de lanzamiento de la donación en Johannesburgo, Sudáfrica. “Para terminar con la epidemia de la tuberculosis, tenemos que ser eficaces aquí”. “La tuberculosis no es solo una enfermedad que se origina en la pobreza, sino que también causa pobreza, y es una amenaza para la seguridad sanitaria mundial. Nuestra meta en África meridional es, por lo tanto, alcanzar los dos objetivos del Banco Mundial de poner fin a la pobreza a más tardar en 2030 e impulsar la prosperidad compartida, centrando la atención en los factores que impulsan la tuberculosis en el sector minero”, dijo el Dr. Patrick Osewe, experto mundial en el tema de sociedades más sanas del Grupo Banco Mundial, y líder del equipo de la Iniciativa de África meridional contra la tuberculosis en el sector de la minería. El Grupo Banco Mundial respalda a los países africanos afectados por epidemias de tuberculosis a través de la Iniciativa de África meridional contra la tuberculosis en el sector de la minería. Esta constituye un esfuerzo de múltiples partes interesadas que incluye a representantes de los 10 países; ministerios de Salud, de Minería y del Trabajo; empresas mineras; asociaciones de mineros y exmineros; sindicatos; instituciones de desarrollo; organizaciones de la sociedad civil, y centros de investigación. El lanzamiento de la donación del Fondo Mundial se efectuó en el marco de una reunión regional de dos días, organizada por la Iniciativa de África meridional contra la tuberculosis en el sector de la minería y realizada en Johannesburgo, Sudáfrica. Asistieron representantes de los países, el sector privado, la sociedad civil, el Departamento para el Desarrollo Internacional del Reino Unido (DFID), la Alianza Alto a la Tuberculosis, la OMS, el Fondo Mundial, la Organización Internacional para las Migraciones, y asociados en la ejecución de proyectos. El encuentro también buscó armonizar las intervenciones financiadas por la donación del Fondo Mundial, el proyecto regional del Grupo Banco Mundial y las iniciativas existentes en los países. En esta línea, los participantes recomendaron que se amplíe el mandato del mecanismo de coordinación regional para el proyecto del Fondo Mundial con el objetivo de que se convierta en una plataforma que coordine a todos los programas vinculados con la lucha contra la tuberculosis en el sector minero de África meridional, y no solo las intervenciones financiadas por el Fondo Mundial. El Grupo Banco Mundial está trabajando para desarrollar inversiones en el sector minero. Además de la donación del Fondo Mundial, el Grupo Banco Mundial está invirtiendo USD 120 millones en un proyecto regional para ampliar la prevención y el tratamiento de la tuberculosis en el sector minero en Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia y Lesotho. Pruebas experimentales de las actividades catalizadoras de la iniciativa regional se están llevando a cabo gracias a una donación de GBP 2 millones (libras esterlinas) del DFID y USD 4 millones proporcionados por el Fondo de donaciones para el desarrollo del Grupo Banco Mundial. Hasta la fecha, se han conseguido varios logros significativos en el esfuerzo colectivo de abordar la tuberculosis en el sector minero en la región, entre ellos: i) el desarrollo de un sistema fronterizo de seguimiento para supervisar la adhesión al tratamiento de la tuberculosis por parte de los mineros; ii) la mejora de las condiciones de vida y laborales de los mineros por parte de las empresas privadas; iii) servicios de salud ocupacionales más amplios y accesibles para los exmineros, que los vinculen con servicios de compensación; iv) mayor promoción sobre los peligros de la tuberculosis, y v) nuevos modelos para la detección, el diagnóstico y el tratamiento de casos activos de la enfermedad. Además, la iniciativa ha dado lugar a un protocolo armonizado para la gestión de la tuberculosis, que garantiza que los pacientes que pertenecen al sector de la minería, independientemente del país donde trabajen, puedan recibir el mismo tratamiento.
No “One Size Fits All” Solution to Sustainable School Feeding Programs
New Data Highlights National Meal Program Successes and Challenges WASHINGTON, June 9, 2016 – National school feeding programs have contributed to higher primary school enrollment and retention in Sub-Saharan African countries, and created jobs within the communities they serve, according to newly-released analysis of global school feeding programs. Produced in response to demand from governments and development partners, The Global School Feeding Sourcebook: Lessons from 14 Countries, analyzes a range of government-led school feeding programs to provide decision-makers and practitioners worldwide with the knowledge, evidence and good practices needed to bolster their national school feeding efforts. With case studies from countries including Botswana, Cabo Verde, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa, the Sourcebook highlights the tradeoffs associated with alternative school feeding models, and analyzes overarching themes, trends and challenges across them. According to the analysis, the strongest and most sustainable programs are those that respond to a community need, are locally-owned and incorporate some form of parental or community involvement. In Namibia, communities are expected to provide fuel, cooking utensils and storerooms. In Mali, school feeding programs have put schools at the heart of local development by promoting locally-owned meal programs. In Ghana, the government uses a digital school meals planner to develop nutritionally balanced school meals using local ingredients.    With school feeding’s proven ability to improve the health and education of children while supporting local and national economies and food security, school feeding  programs exist in almost every country in the world for which there is data, for a total annual global investment of $75 billion. This provides an estimated 368 million children worldwide with a meal at school daily. However, too often, such programs are weakest in countries where there is the most need. In a joint foreword, World Bank Group President Dr. Jim Yong Kim and World Food Programme Executive Director Ertharin Cousin said the research showed how school meals programs help to get children into the classroom and keep them there, “contributing to their learning by avoiding hunger and advancing cognitive abilities.” “Today, national school feeding programmes are increasingly embedded in national policy on poverty elimination, social protection, education and nutrition,” they added. Lesley Drake, Imperial College London’s Partnership for Child Development’s executive director and lead editor of the report said, “The overall message from this research is that there is no ‘one size fits all’ for school feeding and there are many routes to success. Context is key. This sourcebook will act as valuable tool for governments to enable them to make evidenced-based decisions that will improve the effectiveness of their school feeding programs.” The Sourcebook follows Rethinking School Feeding (WB, 2009) and The State of School Feeding Worldwide (WFP, 2013) as the third in a trilogy of agenda defining analyses produced by the World Bank, World Food Programme and Imperial College London’s Partnership for Child Development (PCD) global partnership, which have shaped the way in which governments and donors alike approach school feeding. “Helping countries to apply this knowledge [in this Sourcebook] to strengthen national school feeding programs will contribute to reducing the vulnerability of the poorest, giving all children a chance for an education and a bright future and eliminating poverty,” said Kim and Cousin. The Sourcebook is free to download at the World Bank’s Open Knowledge Repository.  
Global School Feeding Sourcebook: Key Findings
The Global School Feeding Sourcebook: Lessons from 14 Countries examines the 14 national programmes in terms of Five Quality Standards as identified in Rethinking School Feeding (WB, 2009) that are needed for school feeding programmes to be sustainable and effective. These standards include: design and implementation; policy and legal frameworks; institutional arrangements; funding and budgeting; and community participation. Design and implementation School feeding is most frequently designed as a social protection measure for poor and vulnerable communities with the key outcome being an improvement in education through increased enrolment, reduced absenteeism, and enhanced gender equality. For example primary school enrolment in Nigeria’s Osun State increased by 28percent since the introduction of free school meals. Increasingly, policy makers are seeing school feeding as a means to tackle health and nutrition issues whether that be stunting and anaemia caused by undernutrition or obesity caused by over nutrition. In Ghana, the government uses a digital school meals planner to develop nutritionally balanced school meals using local ingredients. Another trend is for countries to connect school feeding with local food production and purchase, also known as Home Grown School Feeding. This benefits both rural economies and school children alike as children benefit from nutritious fresh food and farmers benefit from being able to sell their produce a new market. In Brazil, for example, it is federal law that 30percent of food for school meals is procured from small family-run farms.  Policy and legal frameworks Effective programmes need well-articulated policy and legal frameworks. Every country reviewed in the study has included school feeding in its regulatory framework. This has been achieved using different types of legislative and executive measures dependent on the national context. Institutional arrangements There is no single institutional design, but the key determinants of success include co-ordinating stakeholders from across multiple sectors; ensuring that there is enough government capacity at national and local levels; and creating mechanisms to ensure quality and accountability of the school feeding programmes. The cross-sectoral aspect of school feeding is exemplified by Kenya, where its programmes are coordinated jointly by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Agriculture. Funding and budgeting School feeding costs usually represent a small fraction of educational expenditure (typically 10-15 percent) with the purchase of food being the main cost-driver. Identifying sustainable and protected sources of funding remains the key challenge for many low-income countries. Analysis shows that there is strong political will to continue to fund school feeding as it is a popular intervention with the public, but not all funding is public, and private sector partnerships are a growing area of financial support. In Cape Verde schools can partner with local businesses such as hotels for extra funds which can be put towards cooking facilities. Community participation The strongest and most sustainable programmes are those that respond to community need, are locally-owned and incorporate some form of parental or community contribution. In Namibia, many communities are expected to provide fuel, cooking utensils and storerooms. Indirect benefits of school feeding include employment opportunities for example, in Chile, low-income mothers are given catering training. School feeding can also mean increased income and training for smallholder farmers; as well as complementary school health activities, as in both Mexico and Brazil where parents are taught about the importance of nutritionally balanced diets.  
استغلال الأصول الطبيعية من أجل نمو السياحة والحد من الفقر
حين تُحسْن إدارة الطبيعة، تزدهر العديد من قطاعات الاقتصاد- فالزراعة تستفيد من التربة الجيدة والمياه الوفيرة، وتزخر المصايد بالأسماك الغزيرة، وتحظى المدن الساحلية بحماية أفضل من العواصف.وقبل انطلاق منتدى مجموعة البنك الدولي للسياحة (e) في الثامن من ديسمبر/كانون الأول، يوضح أورفاشي نارين، خبير أول الاقتصاد البيئي بالبنك الدولي، ذلك قائلا "النمو في قطاع السياحة تدعمه أيضا الأصول الطبيعية، كالشواطئ النظيفة، والمناظر الطبيعية الخلابة والحياة البرية الغنية."ففي تنزانيا، حيث توجد نظام سيرانجيتي الإيكولوجي و جبل كيليمنجارو، تمثل السياحة الطبيعية نحو 10 في المائة من إجمالي الناتج المحلي. وزادت أعداد السياح الضعف في الفترة من 2000 إلى 2012، ويدر القطاع الجانب الأكبر من عائدات التصدير على البلاد. ولا تنفرد تنزانيا بذلك. ففي ناميبيا، يعمل 19 في المائة من إجمالي الموظفين في السياحة الطبيعية بشكل مباشر أو غير مباشر، وفي جزر المالديف تمثل السياحة المصدر الرئيسي للإيرادات الحكومية التي تمول منها التعليم والصحة.وقد برزت السياحة كمحرك للنمو للعديد من بلدان الأسواق الناشئة: في منتصف التسعينيات، كان نصيب البلدان المنخفضة والمتوسطة الدخل من إجمالي عائدات السياحة في العالم لا يتجاوز 17 في المائة. وبحلول عام 2012، زادت هذه النسبة إلى 28 في المائة. هذا الاتجاه شجعه السفر جوا إلى المزيد من المقاصد بتكلفة منخفضة، وتطوير مناطق السياحة الطبيعية والثقافية، وتحسين البنية التحتية والخدمات في البلدان النامية.وعن ذلك يقول نارين إن السياحة الطبيعية في هذا القطاع تتيح "للبلدان إمكانية تحسين إدارة أصولها الطبيعية في حين تشجع على جذب المزيد من السياح لدعم النمو وزيادة فرص العمل، خاصة في المناطق الريفية المهمشة." وحينما تُحسْن إدارة تطوير البنية التحتية الاستراتيجية- وكذلك المياه والأراضي- يمكن للسياحة الطبيعية أن تعود بالنفع على من هم أقل استفادة من السياحة. ومع هذا، ينبغي التخطيط للسياحة والبنية التحتية بعناية وتنفيذ ذلك بطريقة تصون قيمة الأصول الطبيعية. بمعنى آخر، يجب أن تكون السياحة مستدامة كي تكون جذابة ومربحة على المدى الطويل.  
Report: Regional, Global Value Chains Could Create More, Better Jobs for Southern Africa Countries
PRETORIA, January 21, 2016 – If South Africa and its neighbors could take advantage of their collective capabilities to build competitive regional value chains that could feed into global value chains, it could spark economic growth, create high-quality jobs, and reduce poverty, according to a new World Bank study. The report, Factory Southern Africa? SACU in Global Value Chains, analyzes the emergence of global value chains (GVCs) and assesses their potential for South Africa to improve exports, productivity and job creation. The report also focuses on opportunities for southern African countries to establish competitive regional value chains (RVCs), and the requirements to take advantage of this opportunity. “We see from this study that the region could attract more investment and increase jobs not only in industry and agribusiness, but also in high value services sectors such as transport and logistics, infrastructure services, finance, and professional services, if it were to take advantage of its collective capabilities to compete globally,” said Guang Zhe Chen, World Bank country director for South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, Swaziland, Zambia and Zimbabwe. Highlighting the success of other regions that have benefitted from GVCs, the report notes that members of the Southern Africa Customs Union (SACU) – South Africa, Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia and Swaziland – are poised to compete for foreign direct investment arising from the migration of parts GVCs in East Asia. The report notes that the SACU  countries collectively have strong complementarities in of the mix of capabilities required to compete in such GVCs, including transport logistics, contracting institutions, skills, financial capital, and market access.   Taking advantage of the opportunity to develop GVCs may require developing an integrated, regional production network in Southern Africa, similar to the experience in East Asia, Central Europe, and the Americas, the report says. The realization of value addition within the region depends on combining South Africa’s globally competitive and technologically sophisticated enterprises with foreign investors, supported by effective regional integration, according to the report. The report recommends a “Factory Southern Africa” that hinges not simply around industrial production, but around a highly competitive, facilitative network of services, to be built with South Africa as a gateway to global value chains. Its components would be sectors such as transport infrastructure and advanced producer services, such as banking and consultancy, which would enable domestic and multinational corporations (MNCs) to coordinate their regional networks. “The region should focus on promoting gateway integration and open regionalism as a way forward in SACU, coordinating regional investment promotion, strengthening regional competition policy, and supporting public-private dialogue across regional supply chains,” said Thomas Farole, World Bank lead economist and author of the report. The report also notes that the largest gains from deeper GVC integration would come from higher productivity and job creation. An assessment of 25,000 manufacturing firms in 78 developing economies showed a clear link between GVC participation and higher labor productivity. In South Africa and the region, the productivity gains from access to quality imported inputs are exceptionally strong, the report says. In terms of job creation, a case analysis of South Africa’s automotive sector shows that while labor intensity declined with GVC participation, growth resulting from integration meant that overall jobs expanded substantially. Jobs growth, however, did not come in manufacturing or even in the automotive sector directly, but primarily through indirect jobs linked to the automotive value chain – mostly in higher-skilled services jobs. The study also outlines a three-plank framework for supporting the emergence of “Factory Southern Africa.” This involves facilitating regional economic densification, developing skills, services, and infrastructure for competitiveness, and promoting open regionalism and institutional coordination. Beyond supporting gateway strategies, the report also recommends policies to strengthen value chain positioning. Noting that value chain participation is not the end game, the report suggests that success also depends on establishing an environment where firms are able to upgrade to higher value-added positioning in the chains. This will ensure greater returns to workers and support the sustainability of value chains. 
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