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アフリカ地域
概要 2015年のサブサハラ・アフリカの成長率は、主に石油をはじめとする商品価格の下落を反映し、2014年の4.5%を下回る4.1%となる見込みです。 金属その他の主要一次産品の輸出国では、一次産品価格の下落に伴い活動が鈍化する一方、ほとんどの低所得国では、インフラ投資と農業拡大により堅調な成長が続くと予想されています。非石油部門、特にサービス部門では成長が続き、2016年以降の成長率を押し上げると見られます。低位中所得国と高位中所得国では、公共投資の増大と観光業の回復により成長が促進されるでしょう。 詳細は2015年度年次報告書(PDF)をご覧ください。  活動 世界銀行グループは、アフリカ地域の経済成長と貧困削減、経済的多様化、また新たな包括的開発フレームワークに重点をおいて取り組みを行っています。 また、以下の分野に優先的に取り組んでいます。農業生産性の向上小農家に対する技術面や資金面での支援、アグリビジネスへの投資、水源管理、また気候変動に優しい農業を推進しています。エネルギーの確保安価で安定的かつ持続可能なエネルギーの供給の他、気候変動適応と防災が最重要課題です。地域統合地域間の連携を強め、経済の活性化と生産性の強化を図ります。都市化水、衛生、交通、住居、権力とガバナンスの管理が、都市化による生産性と収入向上の鍵となります。質の高い人的資本としての若年層の育成雇用のニーズと人材のギャップを埋めるべく、若年層の技術スキル向上支援を行っています。 詳細はアフリカ地域ページ(英語)をご覧ください。
Global School Feeding Sourcebook: Key Findings
The Global School Feeding Sourcebook: Lessons from 14 Countries examines the 14 national programmes in terms of Five Quality Standards as identified in Rethinking School Feeding (WB, 2009) that are needed for school feeding programmes to be sustainable and effective. These standards include: design and implementation; policy and legal frameworks; institutional arrangements; funding and budgeting; and community participation. Design and implementation School feeding is most frequently designed as a social protection measure for poor and vulnerable communities with the key outcome being an improvement in education through increased enrolment, reduced absenteeism, and enhanced gender equality. For example primary school enrolment in Nigeria’s Osun State increased by 28percent since the introduction of free school meals. Increasingly, policy makers are seeing school feeding as a means to tackle health and nutrition issues whether that be stunting and anaemia caused by undernutrition or obesity caused by over nutrition. In Ghana, the government uses a digital school meals planner to develop nutritionally balanced school meals using local ingredients. Another trend is for countries to connect school feeding with local food production and purchase, also known as Home Grown School Feeding. This benefits both rural economies and school children alike as children benefit from nutritious fresh food and farmers benefit from being able to sell their produce a new market. In Brazil, for example, it is federal law that 30percent of food for school meals is procured from small family-run farms.  Policy and legal frameworks Effective programmes need well-articulated policy and legal frameworks. Every country reviewed in the study has included school feeding in its regulatory framework. This has been achieved using different types of legislative and executive measures dependent on the national context. Institutional arrangements There is no single institutional design, but the key determinants of success include co-ordinating stakeholders from across multiple sectors; ensuring that there is enough government capacity at national and local levels; and creating mechanisms to ensure quality and accountability of the school feeding programmes. The cross-sectoral aspect of school feeding is exemplified by Kenya, where its programmes are coordinated jointly by the Ministry of Education and the Ministry of Agriculture. Funding and budgeting School feeding costs usually represent a small fraction of educational expenditure (typically 10-15 percent) with the purchase of food being the main cost-driver. Identifying sustainable and protected sources of funding remains the key challenge for many low-income countries. Analysis shows that there is strong political will to continue to fund school feeding as it is a popular intervention with the public, but not all funding is public, and private sector partnerships are a growing area of financial support. In Cape Verde schools can partner with local businesses such as hotels for extra funds which can be put towards cooking facilities. Community participation The strongest and most sustainable programmes are those that respond to community need, are locally-owned and incorporate some form of parental or community contribution. In Namibia, many communities are expected to provide fuel, cooking utensils and storerooms. Indirect benefits of school feeding include employment opportunities for example, in Chile, low-income mothers are given catering training. School feeding can also mean increased income and training for smallholder farmers; as well as complementary school health activities, as in both Mexico and Brazil where parents are taught about the importance of nutritionally balanced diets.  
African Caucus: 2016 Cotonou Declaration
The African Governors of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) and the World Bank met at Palais des Congres de Cotonou, Benin on the August 4-5 , 2016 for the African Caucus, chaired by Abdoulaye BIO TCHANE , Beninese Minister of State for Planning and Development, Chairman of the African Caucus. The discussions focused on the general theme “Scaling Up Bretton Woods Institutions Support to Address Shocks, Boost Growth and Enhance Transformation in Africa”.  The "Cotonou Declaration" is the outcome of the work of  ministers of Finance and/or Development of the 54 African countries, as well as the governors of central banks of the region.
Southern Africa's Working-Age Population Presents Potential for Growth
PRETORIA, September 19, 2016 – Southern Africa could improve incomes per capita, reduce poverty and increase growth in five of its countries through generating jobs for its increasing number of young workers by 2050, according to a recently released World Bank Group report. But this chance may be hindered by the regions’ already high unemployment rate, if not tackled. The report: Forever young? Social policies for a changing population in Southern Africa, illustrates how today’s social policies can be shaped to reap benefits presented by  the region’s changing population leading to wealthier and more productive future generations, fostering growth and equity. It explores conditions necessary for the region to take full advantage on its growing working-age population. “Southern Africa has a chance to break intergenerational poverty by promoting social services that invest in the potential of its people from a very young age and by putting its highest number of people to work through harnessing its most valuable resource -- having an increasing number of youth present in the next three decades,” said Guangzhe Chen, World Bank Group Country Director for Southern Africa.But this is particularly challenging in an environment that is already plagued by very high joblessness”. The study which focuses on Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa and Swaziland shows that more of the population in these five countries will be of working-age by 2050. It argues that with fewer dependents per worker, fiscal resources will be freed for the promotion of human development and the employment of younger generations and that good social policies can help generate a virtuous cycles of equity and productivity. Between now and 2050, the working-age population in Botswana will increase by 29 percent, Lesotho by 36 percent, 53 percent in Namibia, and 43 percent in Swaziland. In South Africa the figure will be lower, 28 percent, yet representing an increase of almost 10 million people. By comparison, the report notes that the age structure in the rest of Sub-Saharan Africa will hardly have changed since 1950. To reap the advantage of this transition, Southern Africa will need to generate jobs for its increasing working-age population, and ensure that potential workers are equipped with the necessary skills and instruments to match the demand for labor. If this does not happen, the transition will add further pressure to already fragile labor markets: unemployment is already high in the region, reaching a staggering 47% among youth. Just to hold current low employment rates constant, Botswana will need to create an additional 340,000 jobs, Lesotho 400,000, Namibia 580,000, South Africa 7.1 million, and Swaziland 250,000. In addition, the region will at the same time need to bolster the employability of the millions of working-age population that have already completed their education, but lack the skills to work in a sophisticated and growing global economy, with continuous and remedial education, labor insertion programs and social assistance. The report recommends adjusting social policies to be inclusive and tailoring them towards promoting the human development of younger generations so that when the ratio of working age population peaks to about 70% percent in 2050, these young workers are adequately prepared for jobs that the economy requires to grow.  It recommends upgrading the quality of education through all the stages of education from early childhood development to basic and tertiary school which will make this workforce better equipped for skilled jobs in the future. The report finds that overall, Southern Africa’s generous social assistance systems which have higher fiscal allocations compared to most emerging economies, are mainly geared towards a “protection” role, with the bias towards the elderly. It argues that, they will need to shift to serve a dual objective of protecting the poor and vulnerable from shocks and promoting the human development of the population. This would lead to children that are more likely to be healthy and educated and to grow up to be productive adults. These productive and educated adults in turn will be more likely to raise healthy and educated children, thereby creating a sustainable intergenerational virtuous cycle that would increase incomes per capita, reduce poverty and increase growth. “Our research shows that a growing, well-educated labor force that is supported by efficient services during all stages in life can set countries on an inclusive and sustained growth path during this window of demographic opportunity. But if policies fail to change, a poorly skilled and unemployed workforce will likely be left to perpetuate the vicious cycle of poverty and inequality, ” said Lucilla Bruni, World Bank economist working on social protection and labor issues and one of the authors of the report. The study conducted simulation exercises which show that improving educational attainment could raise GDP per capita in 2050 in Swaziland and Lesotho by as much as 18 percent more than if current policies continue. They also show that raising employment ratios up to OECD levels could make South Africa’s GDP per capita quadruple rather than triple in the same time period. In Botswana, policies that stimulate higher productivity through better-quality education and technology could increase per capita income 14 percent more than in the business-as-usual scenario. Simulations also suggest that inclusive growth policies complement each other and that simultaneous implementation could lead to greater impacts than the contribution of each policy alone. It assets that if all policies went into effect at once, South Africa’s GDP per capita would almost quintuple rather than triple by 2050. It would more than triple in Botswana, Lesotho, and Swaziland, and almost triple in Namibia. The report notes that while good social policies help capitalize on this changing population structure, a sound macroeconomic environment, promotion of private-sector development, and the expansion of labor-intensive sectors are also essential. 
Pour des règles du jeu équitables : un nouvel atlas transforme l’accès aux données juridiques en Afrique
WASHINGTON, le 9 mars 2017 – La bonne gouvernance du secteur minier en Afrique suppose l’existence d’un arsenal juridique sans faille. Or ce secteur a pâti jusqu’ici d’un manque de connaissances sur l’évolution des législations des pays africains. Une lacune devenue criante quand un certain nombre d’entre eux, au moment d’adopter ou d’amender leurs codes miniers, ont voulu s’appuyer sur des données comparatives ou des orientations quant à la façon de procéder. Bien que les législations minières soient disponibles dans le domaine public, elles ne sont guère accessibles dans les faits, faute de capacités institutionnelles et de moyens pour diffuser ce type d’informations et de données. C’est dans le but de combler ce vide que le Groupe de la Banque mondiale s’est associé à la Facilité africaine de soutien juridique et à la Commission de l’Union africaine pour lancer le projet « AMLA » (pour African Mining Legislation Atlas). Avec cet atlas des législations minières africaines, il s’agit de favoriser les échanges sur le développement durable du secteur des mines en Afrique par le biais de trois dispositifs :une plateforme de ressources en ligne qui fournit un accès gratuit et centralisé à l’encadrement juridique du secteur minier en Afrique (codes miniers, réglementations et législations des différents pays) ;un programme de formations (a) conçu pour renforcer les capacités de la prochaine génération de professionnels du droit africains ;un modèle cadre (a) qui consiste en un guide de rédaction juridique pour l’élaboration ou la révision des législations minières. Le projet AMLA a formé à ce jour 70  étudiants en droit (36 hommes et 34 femmes), originaires de 18 pays africains. La plateforme, disponible en anglais, en français et en portugais, renferme la totalité des 53 codes miniers existant actuellement en Afrique ainsi qu’un outil comparatif qui permet de mettre en parallèle les dispositions législatives de 37 pays sur les 98 sujets les plus courants du droit minier. Le modèle cadre de l’AMLA, un outil d’aide à la décision Le modèle cadre (a) lancé il y a quelques mois sur la plateforme AMLA est un outil de référence en ligne et gratuit qui propose des lignes directrices pour la rédaction d’une législation minière ou son évaluation au regard du contexte qui prévaut actuellement en Afrique. Il traite de plus de 200 aspects et fournit, pour chacun d’eux, une description détaillée ainsi qu’une sélection d’exemples de dispositions législatives accompagnées d’annotations contenant des éléments de contexte et des éclairages sur les problématiques éventuelles et les points à relever. Ce guide, et la plateforme AMLA plus généralement, ont reçu un accueil très favorable auprès de l’ensemble des acteurs concernés. Lors de l’inauguration officielle du projet organisé à l’occasion de la conférence Mining Indaba, le plus grand rendez-vous mondial consacré aux investissements miniers en Afrique, les hauts responsables et ministres des mines de plusieurs pays africains ont salué une initiative plus que nécessaire. À l’instar de Lebohang Thotanyana, ministre des Mines du Lesotho, qui voit dans l’AMLA « un instrument dont le continent africain a besoin depuis longtemps ». Selon le ministre lesothan, qui conduit le processus de révision de la législation minière récemment engagé par son pays, la plateforme et le modèle cadre fournis par l’AMLA vont permettre à son équipe d’œuvrer avec plus d’efficacité et de transparence. Pour la commissaire de l'Union africaine au Commerce et à l'Industrie, Fatima Haram Acyl, « l’Afrique a besoin d’instruments qui répondent et soient conformes aux principes de la Vision minière pour l’Afrique ainsi qu’aux aspirations de l’Agenda 2063 ». Et d’ajouter : « l’AMLA est le seul instrument de ce type disponible à ce jour […] qui vient répondre à la nécessité de disposer d’un arsenal complet de lois et de cadres règlementaires sur les ressources minières. »   Parmi les autres participants à cet événement, Christopher Stevens, associé dans le cabinet Werkmans et président de LEX Africa, et Nicola Woodroffe, spécialiste juridique au sein du Natural Resources Governance Institute (NRGI), ont tous deux mis en avant les nombreux bénéfices que l’AMLA procure aux cabinets d’avocats qui travaillent auprès de clients du secteur privé et du secteur public. Un projet ancré en Afrique                                                                           Au moment de la planification du projet, il avait été jugé important et pertinent de faire en sorte, qu’à terme, une instance basée en Afrique en assume la responsabilité, l’objectif étant de garantir un engagement vigoureux et d’assurer une production mutuelle de connaissances ancrée dans la réalité du secteur minier africain.     C’est dans cet esprit que la Banque mondiale a commencé à transférer l’entretien et l’actualisation régulière de la plateforme AMLA, ainsi que la coordination du programme de formations, à un secrétariat de la Facilité africaine de soutien juridique, elle-même placée sous l’égide de la Banque africaine de développement. Comme le souligne Sheila Khama, chef de service au pôle Énergie et industries extractives du Groupe de la Banque mondiale, « en transférant l’administration courante de la plateforme à la Facilité africaine de soutien juridique, qui relève de la Banque africaine de développement, la Banque mondiale contribue à valoriser les capacités de ses partenaires régionaux et à pérenniser le projet ».
Igualdade de Condições: Um Novo Atlas Transforma o Acesso aos Dados Jurídicos em África
WASHINGTON, 9 de Março de 2017 – É essencial um enquadramento legal abrangente para uma adequada governação do sector mineiro de África. Contudo, o acesso e o conhecimento das alterações legislativas em muitos países africanos não acompanharam o seu ritmo real. Vários países africanos esforçaram-se por adoptar ou rever os códigos mineiros, procurando informações comparativas e orientações sobre práticas de referência no processo, mas o vazio tornou-se óbvio: há uma falta de dados comparativos sobre leis da mineração e modelos padronizados adequados para a indústria mineira de África. Estas leis já são documentos públicos embora a acessibilidade a estes documentos esteja bloqueada, o que em grande medida se deve à falta de capacidade institucional e à escassez de formas para fornecer essas informações e dados. Em 2014 o Grupo Banco Mundial, em parceria com o Fundo Africano de Apoio Jurídico e a Comissão da União Africana lançou a AMLA. A AMLA visa catalisar a discussão em torno do desenvolvimento sustentável do sector mineiro de África através de três vias:A Plataforma AMLA é um balcão único online grátis, de informações sobre o enquadramento legal da mineração em África, incluindo códigos de mineração, regulamentos e legislação pertinente;O Programa de Formação AMLA centrado no reforço da capacidade na próxima geração de juristas de África; eO Modelo Orientador, um documento anotado concebido para assistir os países na preparação ou revisão das suas leis sobre mineração. Até à data, o projecto AMLA preparou 70 jovens africanos estudantes de direito, 36 homens e 34 mulheres, de 18 países. A AMLA está disponível em Inglês, Francês e Português e contém todos os 53 códigos de mineração africanos existentes, em formato pesquisável, bem como uma funcionalidade de comparação que permite aos utilizadores comparar as disposições legislativas dos 37 países relativamente aos 98 temas mais abordados no que toca a lei da mineração. Modelo Orientador da AMLA, uma Ferramenta para os Decisores No princípio deste ano, foi lançado um produto de conhecimento, o Modelo Orientador da AMLA, uma ferramenta online de referência grátis, que presta orientação sobre a elaboração ou avaliação de uma lei mineira baseada nas actuais realidades de África. Abrange mais de 200 tópicos, fornecendo (i) uma descrição detalhada do tema e (ii) um menu de uma amostra de disposições legislativas acompanhado de anotações para explicar o contexto, questões e aspectos úteis da língua em que são apresentadas. A reacção à AMLA e Modelo Orientador foi altamente positiva de toda a parte. Realizou-se um evento de lançamento em Mining Indaba, a maior conferência do mundo sobre investimento mineiro em África. Altas autoridades governamentais e Ministros das Minas de vários países africanos estiveram presentes e saudaram a AMLA como uma iniciativa muito necessária. “Acho que é a ferramenta que o Continente Africano há muito precisava” disse S.Exa. Lebohang Thotanyana, Ministro das Minas do Lesoto, que está actualmente a dirigir o processo de revisão da lei mineira do Lesoto. O Ministro declarou que o processo, que a sua equipa acabou de iniciar, será realizado de uma forma eficiente e transparente graças à Plataforma AMLA e ao Modelo Orientador. S.Exa. Fatima Haram Acyl, Comissária para o Comércio e Indústria da Comissão da União Africana afirmou que “África precisa de ferramentas que respondam e estejam alinhadas com os princípios da Visão para a Exploração Mineira em África da Agenda 2063. O Atlas da Legislação Africana em Matéria de Mineração é […] a única dessas ferramentas […] que responde à necessidade de haver leis abrangentes sobre recursos minerais e quadros regulamentares”.   Entre os presentes no lançamento e que usaram da palavra contam-se Christopher Stevens, Sócio Parceiro de Werkmans LLC e chefe de LexAfrica, e Nicola Woodroffe, Analista Legal do Instituto de Administração dos Recursos Naturais (NRGI). Ambos referiram os muitos benefícios que a AMLA proporciona às sociedades de advogados que representam os clientes, tanto do sector privado como do público. Um Futuro de Apropriação Africana Durante as fases de planeamento da AMLA ficou determinado que, em última instância, seria importante e adequado que uma entidade sedeada em África assumisse o controlo do projecto para garantir que havia um forte compromisso com a continuação da co-geração de conhecimento com fundamento nas realidades do sector mineiro africano. É neste espírito que o Banco Mundial começou a transferir a manutenção e actualização regular da plataforma AMLA e a coordenação do Programa de Formação para um secretariado no Fundo Africano de Apoio Jurídico, que é acolhido pelo Banco Africano de Desenvolvimento.
Leveling the Playing Field: A New Atlas Transforms Access to Legal Data in Africa
WASHINGTON, March 9, 2017 – A comprehensive legal framework is crucial for the proper governance of Africa’s mining sector. However, access to and knowledge of the evolving legislation of many African countries has not kept pace. A number of African countries have worked to adopt or revise their mining codes, seeking comparative information and guidance on benchmark practices in the process, the void has become obvious: there is an absence of comparative data on mining laws and suitable templates for the African mining industry. These laws are already public documents, yet their accessibility is stalled largely due to a lack of institutional capacity as well as a shortage of ways to deliver that information and data. In 2014 the World Bank Group, in partnership with the African Legal Support Facility and the African Union Commission, launched AMLA. The vision for AMLA is to catalyze discussion around the sustainable development of Africa’s mining sector through three avenues:The AMLA Platform, a free online one-stop resource for Africa's mining legal framework, including mining codes, regulations and related legislation;The AMLA Training Program, focused on strengthening the capacity of Africa’s next generation of lawyers; andThe Guiding Template, an annotated document designed to assist countries in the preparation or revision of their mining laws. To date, the AMLA project has trained 70 young African law students, 36 men and 34 women, from 18 countries. AMLA is available in English, French and Portuguese, and contains all 53 existing African mining codes in searchable format, as well as a comparison feature that allows users to compare the legislation provisions of 37 countries (and counting) across 98 commonly addressed topics in a mining law. AMLA Guiding Template, a Tool for Decision Makers Earlier this year a new knowledge product was launched, the AMLA Guiding Template, a free online reference tool that provides guidance on drafting or assessing a mining law based on Africa’s current realities. It covers over 200 topics, providing (i) a detailed description of the subject matter and (ii) a menu of legislation sample provisions with accompanying annotations to explain the context, issues and useful features of the presented language. Response to AMLA and the Guiding Template has been overwhelmingly positive from all corners. A launch event was held at Mining Indaba, the world’s largest conference on mining investment in Africa. Senior government officials and Mining ministers from several African countries attended the event and hailed AMLA as a much needed initiative. “I think this is the tool the African Continent has needed for quite some time,” said H.E. Lebohang Thotanyana, Lesotho’s Minister of Mines, who is currently leading the review process to revise Lesotho’s mining law. The Minister stated that the process his team has just embarked upon will now be carried out in a more efficient and transparent manner thanks to the AMLA Platform and Guiding Template. H.E. Fatima Haram Acyl, Commissioner for Trade and Industry with the African Union Commission said “Africa needs tools that respond to and are aligned with the principles of the Africa Mining Vision and aspirations of the Agenda 2063. The African Mining Legislation Atlas is […] is the only one of such tools […] that responds to the needs of having comprehensive mineral resources laws and regulatory frameworks.”   Others attending the launch event and speaking included Christopher Stevens, Partner at Werkmans LLC and head of LexAfrica, and Nicola Woodroffe, Legal Analyst with the Natural Resources Governance Institute (NRGI). Both expressed the many benefits AMLA offers law firms that represent both private and public sector clients. A Future of African Ownership During AMLA’s planning stages it was determined that ultimately it would be important and appropriate for an Africa-based entity to take over ownership of the project to ensure there was strong commitment to the co-generation of knowledge continues to occur grounded in the realities of Africa’s mining sector. It is in this spirit that the World Bank began transferring the maintenance and regular updating of the AMLA platform and coordination of the Training Program to a secretariat at the African Legal Support Facility, which is hosted by the African Development Bank.
Fighting TB Among Southern Africa Mine Workers
Feb 26, 2016 -- The World Bank Group’s efforts to help Southern African countries combat the devastating tuberculosis (TB) epidemic in the mining sector got a boost earlier this month with a landmark $30 million grant from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria. The grant will support potentially transformative TB interventions in 10 Southern Africa countries, (i.e., Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia and Zimbabwe). The World Bank Group serves as the Secretariat of the Regional Coordinating Mechanism (RCM) for the Global Fund project. The Wits Health Consortium acts as the Principal Recipient of the grant, on behalf of the ten countries. TB is one of the world’s most deadly diseases, killing three people every minute. Each year, 9 million people develop TB, and 1.5 million die from the disease. TB is particularly a problem in the Southern Africa mining sector, a key driver for economic growth in the region. In South Africa alone, TB rates within the gold mining workforce are estimated at 2,500-3,000 cases per 100,000 individuals. This incidence is 10 times the World Health Organization (WHO) threshold of 250 per 100,000 for a health emergency. Factors that contribute to the high incidence of TB among mineworkers include prolonged exposure to silica dust, poor living conditions, high HIV prevalence, poverty, circular movement of mineworkers across provincial and national borders, and a poor cross-border health referral system. “We are committed to investing vigorously to reduce TB rates as much as possible,” said Mark Dybul, Executive Director of the Global Fund at the grant launch ceremony in Johannesburg, South Africa. “To end TB as an epidemic, we have to be effective here.” “TB is not only a disease of poverty, but it also creates poverty and is a threat to global health security.  Our goal in southern Africa is therefore to achieve the World Bank’s twin goals of ending poverty and boosting shared prosperity by 2030 through a targeted focus on addressing the drivers of TB in the mining sector,” said Dr. Patrick Osewe, Global Lead, Healthy Societies, World Bank Group, and Team Leader for the Southern Africa TB in the Mining Sector Initiative. The World Bank Group supports African countries affected by TB epidemics through the Southern Africa TB in the Mining Sector Initiative. The initiative  is a multi-stakeholder effort involving representatives from 10 countries, Ministries of Health, Mineral Resources, and, Labor; mining companies; current and ex-mineworkers’ associations; labor unions; development agencies; civil society, and research institutions. The launch of the Global Fund grant was part of a two–day regional meeting of the Southern African TB in the Mining Sector Initiative held in Johannesburg, South Africa. Representatives from countries attended, as well as representatives from the private sector, civil society, DFID, the Stop TB Partnership, WHO, Global Fund, the International Organization for Migration, and implementing partners. The meeting also sought to harmonize interventions funded by the Global Fund grant, the World Bank Group regional project, and existing country initiatives. In this vein, participants recommended that the mandate of the RCM for the Global Fund project be expanded to become the platform for coordinating all programs linked to addressing TB in the mining sector in Southern Africa, and not just interventions funded by the Global Fund. The World Bank Group is working to shape investments in the mining sector. In addition to the Global Fund grant, the Bank Group is investing $120 million in a regional project to scale up TB prevention and treatment in the mining sector in Malawi, Mozambique, Zambia and Lesotho. Additionally, a £2 million grant from the UK Department for International Development, and $4 million provided by the World Bank Group Development Grant Facility, are helping to pilot catalytic activities for the regional initiative. To date, several significant achievements have been made in the collective effort to tackle TB in the mining sector in the region, including: (i) development of a cross-border tracking system for monitoring adherence to TB treatment for mineworkers; (ii) improvement of mineworkers’ living and working conditions by private sector companies; (iii) expanded and more accessible occupational health services to ex-mineworkers, linking ex-mineworkers to compensation services; (iv) increased advocacy on TB; and (v) new models for active TB case finding, diagnosis and treatment. Furthermore, the initiative has led to a harmonized protocol for the management of TB, which ensures that TB patients within the mining sector, regardless of which country they may work in, receive the same treatment. 
Improving Africa’s School Feeding Programs: Analysis Sheds Light on Strengths, Challenges
WASHINGTON, June 9, 2016 – In Kenya, more than 1.5 million school children are fed a hot lunch of corn and legumes each day, the only meal many of them will have. More than 8.8 million South African students receive a cooked mid-morning meal, and those in the poorest provinces are also served lunch. Cabo Verde’s national school feeding program not only provides one hot meal a day to thousands of school children, it also employs more than 1,000 women from within the school communities.   For the first time, detailed data about national school meal programs are available in the newly-released Global School Feeding Sourcebook: Lessons from 14 Countries. Using case studies from around the world, including programs in nine countries in Sub-Saharan Africa, the sourcebook provides a comprehensive analysis of school feeding programs to identify common themes, challenges and good practices.    “I think we are now at a stage where it’s not whether school feeding is important, it’s how to design and deliver school feeding,” said Andy Tembon, World Bank senior health specialist. “This sourcebook comes at a very important moment, because it gives us an idea of how to strengthen and how to scale up school feeding programs.”   According to the analysis, the strongest and most sustainable programs are those that respond to a community need, are locally-owned and incorporate some form of parental or community involvement. In Namibia, communities are expected to provide fuel, cooking utensils and storerooms. In Mali, school feeding programs have put schools at the heart of local development by promoting locally-owned meal programs. In Ghana, the government uses a digital school meals planner to develop nutritionally balanced school meals using local ingredients.   The sourcebook is the third in a series of analysis on school feeding by the World Bank, the World Food Programme (WFP) and the Imperial College London’s Partnership for Child Development (PCD). The first, Rethinking School Feeding (WB, 2009), highlighted the long-term social investment of school feeding, and its role as a short-term productive safety net for children and families. The second, the State of School Feeding Worldwide (WFP, 2013), shows that school feeding programs serve as many as 368 million students in almost every country in the world at a global cost of $75 billion.   Developed in response to demand from governments and development partners, the sourcebook offers guidelines for designing and implementing sustainable national food programs, as well as recommendations for strengthening existing programs. Nine Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries are included in the analysis: Botswana, Cabo Verde, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa. “School feeding programs can help to get children into school and help keep them there, increasing enrollment and reducing absenteeism,” said World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim and WFP’s Ertharin Cousins in a joint foreword. “While there are many successful models for rich countries, there is specific demand from governments in low and middle income countries for guidance on how to strengthen and scale up their national programs. This latest joint publication is a response to this demand.” Lesley Drake, lead editor of the analysis and PCD’s executive director said “the overall message from the sourcebook is that there is no ‘one size fits all’ for school feeding and there are many routes to success.” Additional key findings about school feeding programs in SSA countries in the sourcebook include:   Botswana: The government has successfully implemented its national school feeding program continuously for 45 years, witnessing enrollment growth and school attendance rates that are highly associated with the availability of food at school. There are a number of strengths, however, there is still room for improvement, and a need for more robust data, analysis and reporting. Cabo Verde: The government has repeatedly shown its commitment to a policy of universal coverage of school feeding programs in public pre-primary and primary schools, and is now revising the objectives to meet the changing needs of communities. The major challenge is how to meet the demand to provide healthy meals and support the local economy and agriculture, while keeping the program affordable. Cote d’Ivoire: In addition to increased school access, retention, and success, the school feeding program has sparked behavioral changes among children including hand washing, good eating habits, nutritional, and hygiene practices. For a sustainable program, the report calls for strengthened governance, capacity, monitoring and evaluation, as well as improving agricultural technical skills and the introduction of advanced agricultural technology and equipment. Ghana: School feeding in Ghana is decentralized and outsourced, relying on caterers for food procurement, preparation and distribution. This creates jobs for the communities, and allows schools to focus on education rather than food duties. While implementation of school feeding programs need political support and commitment, the report notes it is important for the government not to politicize the program, which can affect targeting and quality. Kenya: The country stands out for developing innovative and complementary school feeding programs, with both successes and challenges. The Njaa Marufuku Kenya (Eradicate Hunger in Kenya) program, under the Ministry of Agriculture, is geared toward agricultural development and capitalizes on the ministry’s agricultural expertise and integrates community food and nutrition security with school feeding. However, continued financing is a challenge. The Home Grown School Meals (HGSM) program, under the Ministry of Education, Science and Technology, aims to tackle low school enrollment and attendance, high dropout rates and low academic achievement. As it transitions from World Food Programme support to being government led, the program would benefit from increased links to local agriculture. Mali: Launched three years ago, the national school feeding program has contributed to an increase in school enrollment and retention in primary schools, especially for girls. The program promotes locally-owned school feeding programs, benefitting communities through community organizations, providing training, and supporting smallholder famers. One challenge is that there has not been an impact evaluation on the program, so there is no significant data on its social and economic impacts.  Namibia: School feeding programs serve as an incentive for poor and/or marginalized learners, or those affected by HIV and AIDS to attend school more regularly and consistently perform better. However, in the past decade, the impact of the HIV pandemic, droughts, floods and the rising prices of food have shifted the program to a safety net or means of social protection rather than improved childhood nutrition. The government has increased funding to fully-finance the program, and there are also plans to expand, which will serve as an opportunity to improve it. Nigeria: In Osun State, the innovative system of checks and balances that has been developed over the years has ensured good governance and is a model of good practice within the country and the region. Cooks procure the food every two weeks for 50 children per cook, inspiring smallholder participation. However, the funding capacity is limited; the current budget is a strain on the finances of the state.  South Africa: The school nutrition program is designed to alleviate poverty, improve access to education and academic performance through good nutrition. Meals are provided daily to more than eight million children, and there are plans to reach more. Since the beginning of its program in 1994, community participation has been identified as the key to success, with parents encouraged to volunteer and help make decisions through School Governing Bodies. Developing links between school feeding and local agriculture production more systematically could result in greater community involvement in schools and even greater economic benefits. 
No “One Size Fits All” Solution to Sustainable School Feeding Programs
New Data Highlights National Meal Program Successes and Challenges WASHINGTON, June 9, 2016 – National school feeding programs have contributed to higher primary school enrollment and retention in Sub-Saharan African countries, and created jobs within the communities they serve, according to newly-released analysis of global school feeding programs. Produced in response to demand from governments and development partners, The Global School Feeding Sourcebook: Lessons from 14 Countries, analyzes a range of government-led school feeding programs to provide decision-makers and practitioners worldwide with the knowledge, evidence and good practices needed to bolster their national school feeding efforts. With case studies from countries including Botswana, Cabo Verde, Cote d’Ivoire, Ghana, Kenya, Mali, Namibia, Nigeria and South Africa, the Sourcebook highlights the tradeoffs associated with alternative school feeding models, and analyzes overarching themes, trends and challenges across them. According to the analysis, the strongest and most sustainable programs are those that respond to a community need, are locally-owned and incorporate some form of parental or community involvement. In Namibia, communities are expected to provide fuel, cooking utensils and storerooms. In Mali, school feeding programs have put schools at the heart of local development by promoting locally-owned meal programs. In Ghana, the government uses a digital school meals planner to develop nutritionally balanced school meals using local ingredients.    With school feeding’s proven ability to improve the health and education of children while supporting local and national economies and food security, school feeding  programs exist in almost every country in the world for which there is data, for a total annual global investment of $75 billion. This provides an estimated 368 million children worldwide with a meal at school daily. However, too often, such programs are weakest in countries where there is the most need. In a joint foreword, World Bank Group President Dr. Jim Yong Kim and World Food Programme Executive Director Ertharin Cousin said the research showed how school meals programs help to get children into the classroom and keep them there, “contributing to their learning by avoiding hunger and advancing cognitive abilities.” “Today, national school feeding programmes are increasingly embedded in national policy on poverty elimination, social protection, education and nutrition,” they added. Lesley Drake, Imperial College London’s Partnership for Child Development’s executive director and lead editor of the report said, “The overall message from this research is that there is no ‘one size fits all’ for school feeding and there are many routes to success. Context is key. This sourcebook will act as valuable tool for governments to enable them to make evidenced-based decisions that will improve the effectiveness of their school feeding programs.” The Sourcebook follows Rethinking School Feeding (WB, 2009) and The State of School Feeding Worldwide (WFP, 2013) as the third in a trilogy of agenda defining analyses produced by the World Bank, World Food Programme and Imperial College London’s Partnership for Child Development (PCD) global partnership, which have shaped the way in which governments and donors alike approach school feeding. “Helping countries to apply this knowledge [in this Sourcebook] to strengthen national school feeding programs will contribute to reducing the vulnerability of the poorest, giving all children a chance for an education and a bright future and eliminating poverty,” said Kim and Cousin. The Sourcebook is free to download at the World Bank’s Open Knowledge Repository.  
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