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Num Relance: Inclusão Social em África
Muito embora tenham sido dados grandes passos no sentido da redução da pobreza em África, metade das pessoas mais pobres do mundo vive nesta região. As estimativas mais recentes sugerem que a percentagem da população que vive em pobreza extrema baixou de 57% em 1990 para 41% em 2013 (Beegle et al. 2016, Banco Mundial 2016a). Contudo, os mais pobres do mundo irão concentrar-se cada vez mais em África: 389 milhões de pessoas em África ainda viviam com menos de USD 1,90 por dia em 2013, mais gente do que em todas as outras regiões combinadas (Banco Mundial 2016a). A redução da pobreza em África também fica atrás de outras regiões: a Ásia Oriental e a Ásia Austral começaram com taxas de pobreza idênticas na década de 90 mas, actualmente, as suas taxas de pobreza estão bastante mais baixas, situando-se em 4% e 15% respectivamente (Beegle et al. 2016, Banco Mundial 2016a). Por último, a região não apenas acolhe o maior número de pobres mas, os pobres de África, em média, vivem com muito menos de USD 1,90 por dia, o limiar de pobreza extrema (Banco Mundial 2016a). Nestas circunstâncias, pôr fim à pobreza extrema exige uma acção urgente em África e será necessária uma perspectiva de inclusão social para o efeito: a análise da pobreza terá de ir além da identificação de factores correlacionados, para descobrir as suas causas subjacentes, fazendo perguntas tais como por que razão certos grupos estão sobrerepresentados entre os pobres, e por que motivo algumas pessoas não têm acesso à educação, saúde e outros serviços. Inclusão social é o processo que permite melhorar as condições para os indivíduos e grupos participarem na sociedade (Banco Mundial 2013a). Os indivíduos participam na sociedade através de três domínios interrelacionados: mercados (p.ex. trabalho, terra, habitação, crédito), serviços (e.g. electricidade, saúde, educação, água) e espaços (e.g. político, cultural, físico, social). Melhorar as condições, segundo as quais as pessoas participam na sociedade, significa fortalecer a sua capacidade, oportunidade e dignidade. A identidade é o motor principal da exclusão social: os indivíduos e os grupos são excluídos com base na sua identidade. Entre as identidades de grupo mais comuns, que resultam em exclusão, estão o género, raça, casta, etnia, religião, idade, estatuto profissional, localização e situação de incapacidade. A exclusão social, baseada nos atributos destes grupos, pode levar a uma posição social mais baixa, muitas vezes acompanhada de resultados inferiores em termos de rendimento, dotações de capital humano, acesso a emprego e serviços, e voz na tomada de decisões, tanto a nível nacional como local. Em África, embora a exclusão social tenha muitas caras, destacam-se as seguintes: O número de jovens em África está a crescer rapidamente, o que apresenta, ao mesmo tempo, oportunidades e riscos. Cerca de 50% da população na região tem menos de 25 anos de idade (Banco Mundial 2014). Até 2050, África terá 362 milhões de pessoas com idade entre os 15 e 24 anos (Banco Mundial 2014). Este aumento rápido contrasta fortemente com o Médio Oriente e o Norte de África, onde o crescimento na dimensão deste grupo etário estabilizou, e até mesmo com a Ásia Oriental, onde os números são dominados pela China devendo a dimensão deste grupo etário cair de 350 milhões em 2010 para 225 milhões até 2050 (Banco Mundial 2014). Com a adopção de políticas e programas certos, uma população jovem oferece oportunidades extraordinárias para um “dividendo demográfico”. Mas, nos próximos 10 anos, prevê-se que, na melhor das hipóteses, apenas um em cada quatro jovens em África irá encontrar um emprego com salário (Banco Mundial 2014). Esta falta de oportunidades não é só uma ameaça à realização do dividendo demográfico. No pior dos cenários, pode contribuir para a radicalização e a violência. A título de exemplo, um estudo no Quénia sugeriu que 57% dos inquiridos do al-Shabaab juntaram-se ao grupo quando tinham menos de 24 anos (Botha 2014). As oportunidades para as mulheres, em África, estão muito condicionadas, sobretudo por causa da violência e da insegurança. 46% das mulheres em África experimentaram violência sexual por parte de alguém que não é o seu parceiro, ou violência física ou sexual por um parceiro íntimo, ou ambas (Organização Mundial de Saúde, 2013). Na República Democrática do Congo (RDC), por exemplo, cerca de 1,7 a 1,8 milhões de mulheres reportaram ter sido violadas ao longo da vida (Peterman et al. 2011). O acesso aos serviços de saúde materna continua a ser um desafio, pelo que dar à luz permanece uma potencial ameaça à vida das mulheres: mais de 200 mil mulheres em África ainda morrem, todos os anos, ao dar à luz (Banco Mundial 2015a). A falta de voz das mulheres nas decisões que dizem respeito às suas vidas está no centro de muitos destes problemas. No Malawi e na RDC, por exemplo, 34% e 28% das mulheres casadas, respectivamente, não participam nas decisões sobre como gastar os seus rendimentos (Banco Mundial 2011). Ao mesmo tempo, 26% dos agregados familiares em África têm à frente uma mulher e formam um sub-grupo particularmente vulnerável (Beegle et al. 2016). Contudo, África também tem uma taxa elevada de empreendedorismo feminino, de 33% (Banco Mundial 2016b), ilustrando o potencial e a resiliência das mulheres na região, o qual pode contribuir para uma aceleração do desenvolvimento no continente. As deslocações forçadas são um outro desafio à inclusão em África. Em virtude das deslocações forçadas, um sintoma de conflito, de perseguição, de violação dos direitos humanos, de desastres naturais e de falha de governação, a região acolhia 5,1 milhões de refugiados no fim de 2016, ou 30% dos refugiados mundiais (ACNUR 2017). Enquanto os refugiados enfrentam uma situação de dependência da ajuda e uma vida num acampamento, as comunidades que geralmente os recebem pertencem às mais pobres e mais excluídas nos seus respectivos países, vivendo em zonas fronteiriças subdesenvolvidas e isoladas. Turkana County, no Quénia, que acolhe o campo de refugiados de Kakuma, tem um índice de pobreza de 88% comparativamente à média nacional de 45% (Gabinete de Estatísticas do Quénia, 2014). A presença prolongada de refugiados aumenta os desafios para estas comunidades de acolhimento. A grave degradação ambiental, por exemplo, tem impactos profundos nos seus meios de subsistência. Mas a presença de refugiados também tem alguns aspectos positivos para as comunidades que os recebem. O Produto Regional Bruto (PRB) de Turkana está permanentemente a aumentar 3,4% em resultado da presença de refugiados e o emprego total regista um crescimento de 2,9%. As medições do consumo num raio de 5 km do campo são cerca de 35% mais altas do que noutras partes do condado (Sanghi et al. 2016). Com a adopção das medidas certas, poderá promover-se o desenvolvimento inclusivo dos refugiados e dos seus anfitriões. O conflito prolongado na região criou também um outro grupo em risco de exclusão: os ex-combatentes. Há 20 países na região que estão classificados como frágeis ou países afectados por conflitos[1]. O Corno de África e a Região dos Grandes Lagos estão em conflito há 20 anos. Em 2015, o Banco Mundial estimava que existiam 194 mil combatentes em grupos armados em África[2]. Um estudo de 2016, encomendado pelo Programa Transitório de Desmobilização e Reintegração (TDRP) administrado pelo Banco Mundial, sobre movimentos armados no Mali concluiu que a maioria dos ex-combatentes eram jovens, no grupo etário dos 18-40 anos, correspondendo a 79% do total desta faixa. A maioria dos ex-combatentes entrevistados eram casados (76,7%) e 67,4% tinham a seu cargo 6-10 dependentes, o que aponta para a necessidade premente de os apoiar e reintegrar (Banco Mundial 2017a). Praticamente 1 em cada 10 adultos em idade activa, em África, tem uma deficiência (Mitra et al. 2013)[3]. As pessoas com deficiências têm, geralmente, uma taxa de conclusão do ensino primário inferior à das pessoas sem deficiências. Entre os sete países, para os quais existem dados comparáveis do Inquérito Mundial da Saúde (WHS), a Maurícia é quem apresenta a maior disparidade (23%) em termos de média de anos de escolaridade, enquanto o Mali tem a maior disparidade (33%) em termos de taxa de conclusão do ensino primário (Mitra et al. 2011). O fraco acesso aos serviços é, muitas vezes, causado por estigma e discriminação, que em casos extremos pode ameaçar a vida das pessoas com deficiências. Pessoas com albinismo, por exemplo, são vítimas de mitos perigosos em várias partes da África: acredita-se que são fantasmas – não seres humanos – e que as partes do seu corpo podem trazer riqueza e boa sorte (Under the Same Sun 2014). Na Tanzânia, estas atitudes culturais provocaram mortes documentadas de pessoas com albinismo, entre 2007 e 2013 (Under the Same Sun 2014). As tendências actuais em África contribuem para estes desafios de exclusão. Dada a dinâmica populacional, por exemplo, o número de pessoas que vivem em pobreza extrema em África aumentou em mais de 100 milhões, embora a proporção de população tenha baixado (Beegle et al. 2016). Além do mais, a desigualdade cria um desafio: sete dos 10 países mais desiguais ficam em África (Beegle et al. 2016). A região está também a passar por uma rápida urbanização, com 40 000 novos habitantes das cidades, todos os dias; prevêem-se mais de 450 milhões de novos moradores urbanos entre 2010 e 2040, vivendo metade da população de África em zonas urbanas até essa data (Banco Mundial 2013b). Embora a urbanização ofereça oportunidades, desenvolva a procura de mobilidade social e altere normas e valores, ela também cria polarização: cerca de 70% da população urbana de África vive em bairros clandestinos (Banco Mundial 2013b). Por último, as alterações climáticas estão a afectar os mais pobres: estima-se que, até 2030, até 118 milhões das pessoas extremamente pobres serão expostas a secas, inundações e calor extremo em África (Shepherd et al. 2013). Não obstante, existem oportunidades para se construir um desenvolvimento inclusivo em África. O crescimento económico médio da região, de 4,5% ao ano nas últimas duas décadas, foi extraordinariamente robusto (Beegle et al. 2016). A tecnologia abre novas vias para se alcançar os mais vulneráveis: o número de linhas telefónicas fixas e móveis por 1 000 pessoas aumentou de três em 1990 para 736 em 2014 e o número de utilizadores de internet por 100 pessoas cresceu de 1,3 em 2005 para 16,7 em 2015 (Banco Mundial 2017b). A inovação e o espírito empreendedor podem contribuir adicionalmente para retirar as pessoas da pobreza e da exclusão: as startups tecnológicas africanas angariaram fundos que ultrapassaram os USD 129 milhões em 2016, tendo o número de startups que asseguraram financiamento subido cerca de 16,8% comparativamente ao ano anterior, segundo os dados compilados por Disrupt Africa (Disrupt Africa 2017). Juntamente com os seus parceiros, o Banco Mundial está a aproveitar estas oportunidades para uma África mas inclusiva, utilizando múltiplos pontos de entrada através de análise, operações e políticas. Informado por estudos analíticos sobre deslocações forçadas no Corno de África, um projecto regional abrangendo a Etiópia, Uganda, Djibuti e Quénia, por exemplo, está a dar resposta às necessidades das comunidades anfitriãs no que toca a serviços, meios de subsistência e sustentabilidade ambiental. Para apoiar as oportunidades das mulheres, um novo projecto na Nigéria centrar-se-á na capacitação económica das mulheres, enquanto intervenções na região dos Grandes Lagos e no Uganda têm por enfoque a prevenção e resposta à violência baseada em género (GBV). O Africa Gender Innovation Lab está a realizar avaliações de impacto analisando a dinâmica do género e os impactos nos géneros de uma vasta gama de projectos com vista a informar intervenções futuras. Com o apoio do Programa Transitório de Desmobilização e Reintegração (TDRP), operações na RDC, República Centro-Africana, Ruanda e Mali apoiaram a desmobilização e reintegração de ex-combatentes, fornecendo-lhes formação profissional e oportunidades de subsistência. Num projecto de desmobilização no Burundi, foi dado um enfoque especial ao encontro de soluções para os ex-combatentes com deficiências, para referir apenas um exemplo de desenvolvimento com inclusão de pessoas portadoras de deficiências. No Mali, um projecto de desenvolvimento de competências e de emprego de jovens está a ajudar os jovens a obterem as qualificações certas para conseguirem empregos. Nestas e noutras intervenções, é dada ênfase aos processos participativos e impulsionados pela comunidade, com vista a assegurar a voz e a participação dos cidadãos como os principais canais de inclusão.  ReferênciasBeegle, K., L. Christianensen, A. Dabalen, and I. Gaddis (2016): Poverty in A Rising Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.Botha, Anneli (2014): Radicalization in Kenya – Recruitment to al-Shabaab and the Mombasa Republican Council. ISS Paper 265. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.Disrupt Africa (2017): Disrupt Africa African Tech Startups Funding Report 2016.Kenya Bureau of Statistics (2014): Socio-Economic Atlas of Kenya – Depicting the National Population Census by County and Sub-Location. Nairobi: Kenya Bureau of Statistics.Mitra, S., A. Posarac, B. Vick (2011): Disability and Poverty in Developing Countries – A Snapshot from the World Health Survey. Washington DC: World Bank.Mitra, S., A. Posarac, and B. Vick (2013): Disability and Poverty in Developing Countries: A Multidimensional Study. World Development, 41, 1-18.Peterman, A., T. Palermo, and Cc Bredenkamp (2011): Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo. American Journal of Public Health 101 (6): 1060 - 1067.Sanghi, A., H. Onder, V. Vemuru (2016): “Yes” In My Backyard? Washington DC: World Bank.Shepherd, A., T. Mitchell, K. Lewis, A. Lenhardt, L. Jones, L. Scott, and R. Muir-Wood (2013): The Geography of Poverty, Disasters and Climate Extremes in 2030. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI).Under the Same Sun (2013): Children With Albinism: Violence and Displacement. Dar es Salaam: Under the Same Sun.UNHCR (2017): Global Trends – Forced Displacement in 2016. Geneva: UNHCR.World Bank (2011): Gender Equality and Development – World Development Report 2012. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2013a): Inclusion Matters – The Foundation for Shared Prosperity. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2013b): Harnessing Urbanization to End Poverty and Boost Prosperity in Africa – An Action Agenda for Transformation. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2014): Youth Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2015a): World Bank Gender Data Portal – Number of Maternal Deaths. Accessed October 8, 2017.World Bank (2015b): Forced Displacement and Mixed Migration in the Horn of Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2016a): Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2016 – Taking On Inequality. Washington DC: World Bank. World Bank (2016b): World Bank Gender Data Portal – Firms with Female Participation in Ownership. Washington DC: World Bank. Accessed October 8, 2017.World Bank (2017a): Project Appraisal Document Mali Reinsertion of Ex-Combatants Project. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2017b): Africa’s Pulse – An Analysis of Issues Shaping Africa’s Economic Future. Volume 15. Washington DC: World Bank. World Health Organization (2013): Global and Regional Estimates of Violence Against Women – Prevalence and Health Effects of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-Partner Sexual Violence. Geneva: World Health Organization.   [1] Conforme informação do Banco Mundial em Harmonized List of Fragile Situations for fiscal year 2018. [2] Cálculos internos do Programa Transitório de Desmobilização e Reintegração (TDRP). [3] É uma estimativa da prevalência de incapacidade entre as pessoas em idade activa (18 aos 65 anos) em 7 países africanos para os quais existem dados comparáveis do Inquérito Mundial da Saúde (WHS): Burkina Faso, Gana, Quénia, Malawi, Maurícia, Zâmbia e Zimbabwe. 
PLAN AHEAD
What: Join the Philadelphia Inquirer, Daily News, Philly.com, and keynote speaker Valerie Bertinelli (left) for the inaugural 55+Thrive Lifestyle Conference, a day of education, resources and entertainment for boomers and beyond.
UPDATE 2-SouthGobi Resources says CEO arrested in China
* Aminbuhe arrested on Oct. 11, detained in Rizhao -SouthGobi
Yota Pacifico Oue
As part of the World Bank’s flagship series of reports Pacific Possible, which focuses on the future potential of the Pacific Islands, we reached out to some of the region’s next-generation of leaders for their take on the future of their countries and the major challenges ahead.   Yota Pacifico Oue – hails from the island of Pohnpei in the Federated States of Micronesia (FSM) and is recipient of Bill Gates Millennium Scholarship to study Economics and Environmental Studies at Fordham University in New York City. Kaselehlie Maing (‘hello’ in Pohnpeian language). As an Environmental Studies student learning about global environmental issues from the crossroads of economics, history, philosophy, physics, and politics, these academic undertakings have instilled in me a holistic understanding of the complexities of global climate change. This is greatly important to me given that Pacific Islands are the most vulnerable to the detrimental effects of climate change. What makes you get up in the morning? What are you working hard to achieve? Knowing that there are a multitude of opportunities to learn something new motivates me to get up in the morning. Whether it be from a professor’s lecture, daily news, science articles, music tablature, or a friend’s anecdotes, I am fond of learning and consider it a virtue in itself – wanting to learn for the sake of knowing. I am working hard towards completing my undergraduate studies in Economics and Environmental Studies in hopes of returning to my alma mater Xavier High School in Chuuk to serve as a teacher. I anticipate not only applying myself as a formal a teacher in academics or athletics but as a mentor to anyone who actively seeks my knowledge and experience for guidance. What are the biggest issues in your country right now? Currently, the Federated States of Micronesia is struggling to develop a viable and resilient economy that is capable of independently addressing the nation’s public health, education, infrastructure, and environmental conservation initiatives. Under the Compact of Free Association – a bilateral agreement between the U.S. and FSM first negotiated in 1987 then renewed in 2003 – the FSM is granted U.S. federal grants in use towards developing education, environment, health, public capacity building, and private enterprise. In spite of the government’s policies in revitalizing its economy, its efforts have yielded to little avail; however, the country’s state of economic affairs does serve as an adequate reflection of the people’s wellbeing. [And] the discrepancies in how ‘progress’ is measured according to the West, underestimates the perspective of wellbeing in Micronesia. What does the future look like for your country? What’s possible? Although there is no panacea for the country’s major economic problem, the Micronesian people should continue to thoroughly educate and support the nation’s young and aspiring generation of innovators, culturalists, environmental activists, social entrepreneurs, and community leaders in their pursuit of goals. In creating government policies that would steer the society to cultivate unhindered enterprise among such groups, the FSM can facilitate a multifaceted approach to effectively address the nation’s most dire problems. Where do you see the Pacific, as a region, in 25 years? I am hopeful for progress in the Pacific region over the next 25 years; hopeful in a sense that is not contingent on circumstance – not to be confused with being optimistic. I hope that I may be able involved in the Pacific region’s struggle in establishing its presence in international affairs and against the effects of climate change. Considering innovations in renewable energy and disaster mitigation technology, there will be many opportunities for the Pacific region to integrate technology and help develop island-nation economies. I am anticipating economic development prospects in the implementation of renewable energy, eco-conscious buildings, climate resilient infrastructure, and sustainable agricultural projects funded through the Green Climate Fund. I envision the people of Micronesia, Melanesia, and Polynesia being united and much more aware of each other’s shared cultural traits and struggle against the inimical effects of climate change. If you could only be remembered for one thing what would it be? I would want to be remembered as the most curious Pacific Islander you ever met, who wondered about bees, hydroponics, Brazilian jiujutsu, tea, and consciousness. -- Hear from other young Pacific Island leaders and download the Pacific Possible reports learn more about the potential for the Pacific Islands region over the coming decades.   The views expressed in this article do not necessarily represent the views of the World Bank Group and its employees.
Dutch Company Royal DSM Prices Carbon to ‘Future Proof’ Its Business
Few could accuse Dutch company Royal DSM of not changing with the times. Founded in 1902 as a coal mining company, it shifted to petrochemicals by mid-century as the prospects for the fuel dimmed in the Netherlands. Foreseeing a decline in petrochemicals in the 1990s, the company moved on to manufacturing nutritional products, healthcare products, and materials such as plant-based plastics, and advanced materials that improve the performance of solar panels. DSM is today the world’s largest supplier of nutritional ingredients such as vitamins. About a decade ago, the company challenged its scientists to come up with innovations that would help it prepare for the impacts of climate change. And so was born the “Clean Cow” project, a plan to bring down by 25 percent the amount of methane cows exhale by mixing in an additive into their daily feed. Yet, a critical part of that opportunity would rest on governments placing a quantifiable cost on carbon emissions. If economies ascribed a dollar value to greenhouse gas emissions reductions, went the thinking, individuals and businesses – and in the case of the cows, farmers – would have a reason to buy DSM’s products in order to reduce their emissions-related expenses. It’s a remarkable illustration of a business factoring in climate change to drive its corporate responsibility, and also create a business opportunity. The World Bank Group recognizes that the financing needed for transition to a global low-carbon, climate-resilient economy is counted in the trillions, not billions of dollars.  And while public and international concessional finance has a critical catalytic role to play, this transition will also be financed by the private sector. Towards that end, the World Bank Group along with the International Monetary Fund, steers the Carbon Pricing Leadership Coalition, which brings together leaders from across government, the private sector and civil society to share experiences working with carbon pricing and to expand the evidence base for the most effective carbon pricing systems and policies. Co-chairing the coalition’s first High Level Assembly, DSM CEO and Chairman Feike Sijbesma, said “by putting a price on carbon, you put a real economic incentive for companies to develop new low-carbon technologies, reduce their own emissions, and develop new technologies.” Royal DSM has put a so-called internal price on carbon of EUR50 per ton of CO2e. Sijbesma said this will ‘future proof’ the business by changing the mindset when reviewing large investment decisions. The company and its affiliates currently has annual sales of EUR10 billion and employs 25,000 staff across the world. Sixty percent of its sales comes from products and innovations that have a measurably better social or environmental impact than mainstream alternatives. To companies that fail to seize the opportunities of climate action, Sijbesma said, “I think they take the risk of missing the boat. If in five or ten years from now, the world really changes, and some of those companies say 'what is happening?', I would say the turning point was in December 2015, when we made this Paris agreement.”
The Deputy Chairperson of the African Union visits the World Bank Group
  Deputy Chairperson of the African Union Commission (AUC), Mr. Kwasi Quartey, made a courtesy visit on Executive Directors representing African Constituencies at the World Bank Group (WBG) on June 9, 2017.  The meeting was hosted by Mr. Andrew N. Bvumbe, Executive Director for the Africa Group 1 Constituency. Two main issues were discussed, namely (i) human capacity building as a foundation of development, and (ii) challenges in health care delivery in Africa. The meeting acknowledged the importance of capacity building in Africa as a foundation of development. It was pointed out that there were over 460 million youth in Africa who could be an important resource in Africa’s economic transformation. With appropriate education and training, the youth could be transformed to be drivers of growth and development.   Health was said to be another major challenge to development in Africa as there is, among other challenges, an inadequate supply of well-trained doctors and health care specialist. There is an estimated requirement of 1.3 million additional doctors to close the skills gap. In the longer term, a solution would lie in the creation of regional training institutions where African governments would share costs while in the short term, tele-medicines could improve access to specialists. The Train-to-task was also proposed as an option available for potential increase of critical and affordable skills supply, especially to rural Africa. Mr. Bvumbe informed the AUC Deputy Chairperson that a Private Sector Window was established under IDA18, a which would support private sector investments in Africa. In addition, the initiative on domestic resource mobilization would also unlock additional resources.     
Investment Needed to Treat TB in Miners and Their Communities
JOHANNESBURG, July 27, 2017—Tuberculosis (TB) still ranks as one the top five causes of death in Southern Africa, despite an overall decline between 1990 and 2013 in the number of deaths from the disease globally. TB is an infectious, bacterial disease that usually affects the lungs, and silicosis is a lung disease caused by inhaling mineral dust. Miners, most of whom work in close proximity to each other in confined spaces underground in southern Africa’s large, commercial mines for gold, copper, and other minerals, tend to have a higher prevalence of TB. The AIDS virus, which weakens the immune system, also plays a role in the risk of developing TB. Statistics from South Africa’s gold mines in suggest a TB rate of more than ten times the World Health Organization’s emergency threshold of 250/100,00—or about 2,500–3,000 diagnosed cases per 100,000 people. To make matters worse, it is thought that 70% of occupational TB cases go undetected. An estimated 500,000 miners currently work in South Africa, where the World Bank and others joined in the fight against TB are discussing initiatives to tackle it. Their meeting, Smart Investments in Health: Mining as a Catalyst for Building Sustainable Communities, brings together representatives from mining associations, as well as members of the private sector, governments, civil society, and academics. The focus of their work is built on previous initiatives to improve mining policy and legislation to help reduce miners’ exposure to TB infection and make sure they work and live in safer environments. “Coming out of this meeting, it is important to continue to explore the role of industry in complementing government efforts to increase basic health services in mining communities and incentivize investment in health and safety,” said Patrick Osewe, the World Bank’s Global Lead for Healthy Communities. Community development trusts are being considered as models for investing in initiatives against TB, as well as the use of technology and information management, and the separate roles social labor plans and corporate responsibility should play. “We hope this meeting will mobilize the resources required to deal with the effects of TB and dust-related diseases,” said Paul Noumba Um, the World Bank’s Country Director for Botswana, Lesotho, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. “And that it will galvanize lawmakers into bringing in legislation for the provision of occupational health services in their countries.” Some countries lack the regulations and institutions needed to adequately address the effects of mining on the health of miners and the communities around mines, with services especially limited for workers in artisanal and small-scale mines. The World Bank and the UK’s fund for international development, Dfid, have invested in mechanisms that could unlock more finance for the TB initiative, while the Global Fund has contributed US$30m for TB initiatives in Botswana, Lesotho, Malawi, Mozambique, Namibia, South Africa, Swaziland, Tanzania, Zambia, and Zimbabwe. This is in addition to US$120m in World Bank support for four Southern African countries.  Many miners are migrant workers and so initiatives designed to help them include the harmonisation of TB management protocols to ensure they receive uninterrupted treatment for TB and medical referrals from one country to another. Other initiatives taken include training for 130 health workers from Southern Africa, a database of ex-mineworkers, the geospatial mapping of both mines and health services, and the tracking and tracing of unclaimed benefits for ex-mineworkers. 
Call for Smart Investments to Improve Health of Miners
Southern African Development Community explores ways to respond to occupational health JOHANNESBURG, July 26, 201—The health of miners in Southern Africa, their families, and their wider communities could be improved through smart investments in initiatives aimed at tackling occupational diseases, such as TB and Silicosis, members of groups attending a two-day meeting underway in South Africa have stated. Under the theme, Smart Investments in Health: Mining as a Catalyst for Building Sustainable Communities, associations of miners and ex-miners, as well as members of the private sector, governments and their development partners, and civil society are identifying priority interventions for further investment in occupational and public healthcare. The meeting is taking place amid a growing mining industry, with more countries discovering minerals. Studies in ten countries in the Southern African Development Community show, however, that most have not yet set up strong regulations and institutions to address the effects of mining on health in and around the mines. Mine workers, especially those in artisanal and small-scale mines, have limited access to occupational health services. And the communities living around mines are often also exposed to the same public and environmental health risks, such as TB and HIV infection, air and water pollution.  “Addressing a complex, 150 year-old, TB problem in mines requires a coordinated multi-sectoral and multi-country approach, and partnerships,” said Paul Noumba Um, World Bank Country Director for South Africa. “Various regional initiatives have been undertaken to fight this scourge in Southern Africa. Today, we are calling on partners to do more”. In the last five years, a significant amount of knowledge has been generated to understand the extent of this problem and enable countries to identify solutions. Countries have started initiatives to prevent TB infection, identify TB cases, and provide TB treatment services and occupational health services to current and ex-mineworkers. This is a critical initiative in a region where mineworkers have higher TB prevalence compared to general population. An estimated 500,000 mineworkers work in South Africa. Statistics suggest 2,500–3,000 diagnosed TB cases per 100,000 mineworkers in the gold mines, ten times the World Health Organization’s emergency threshold (of 250/100,000 people). An estimated 70% of occupational TB cases go undetected. ”We are beginning to see concrete action for addressing TB in the mining affected populations in the region. This is the start of a paradigm shift, but must be sustained and scaled-up for impact,” said, Suvanand Sahu, Deputy Executive Deputy Director of the Stop TB Partnership Secretariat. Some of the models for investing in occupational and public health being considered are community development trusts, social labor plans, and corporate social responsibility. “The implementation of these programs require considerable resources and mobilizing investment from various partners, including the private sector,” said Donald Denis Tobaiwa, Chair of the Regional Coordinating Mechanism of Southern Africa. This meeting is building on previous initiatives to improve mining policy and legislation. “We see a role for the private sector in providing financial resources to scale-up existing initiatives, such as the expansion of occupational TB services to key affected populations,” said Mark Edington, Head of Grant Management Division for the Global Fund. “The experience of the Global Fund has shown successful outcomes when partnering with the private sector to fight AIDS, TB, and Malaria in other regions.”
World Bank Releases Report on Critical Education Reforms In Botswana
GABORONE, October 11, 2017 – Botswana must undertake pressing education reforms if its secondary school graduates are to learn the 21st century skills demanded by employers, according to a new World Bank report titled “Job-ready graduates of secondary education in Botswana, Lesotho and Zambia.” This new report, done in collaboration with the Ministry of Basic Education, is being presented today at the University of Botswana to a gathering of government officials, private sector representatives, civil society members, academicians, researchers and youth. While education remains one of the best investments governments and citizens can make, Botswana’s secondary education system is presently generating too many graduates who do not possess the skills necessary to become productive members of Botswana’s economy. In Botswana, 34 percent (87,000) of young graduates are presently unemployed and by 2030, four of five workers in Botswana are expected to have secondary education. It is therefore imperative that the Government of Botswana acts swiftly to ensure that the country’s public education system produces job-ready graduates. To do this, the report identifies three priority reforms:(i) introducing multiple educational pathways, including a combined vocational and academic senior secondary track; (ii) accelerating the preparation, approval, and implementation of the competency-based curriculum with a stronger focus on core subjects (Setswana, English, math and science); and(iii) launching a large-scale teacher training program. “The purpose of the report is to ensure that Botswana’s graduates have the skills necessary to win gainful and productive employment,” said Xavier Furtado, World Bank Country Representative for Botswana. “The World Bank stands ready to support education sector reform and job creation as critical elements to ending extreme poverty and boosting shared prosperity in Botswana.”  “The Ministry of Basic Education is fully committed to work with the World Bank in developing the 21st Century leaner who is more skilled,” said Grace Muzila, Permanent Secretary at the Ministry of Basic Education.
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