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Le fédéralisme, c'est plutôt bon pour l'économie
En Suisse, les conditions économiques sont enviables et le pays est toujours en tête des classements mondiaux en matière de compétitivité. Dans quelle mesure cela dépend-il de son système politique? La réussite économique suisse est facile à quantifier, mais difficile à expliquer. Comment se fait-il qu'un pays avec un marché intérieur aussi petit et des revenus moyens parmi les plus élevés au monde puisse maintenir un PIB aussi stable, un taux d’occupation presque égal au plein emploi et, ce qui est encore plus troublant, occuper la première place dans les classements mondiaux en matière de compétitivité? Une conférence qui s’est tenue à Montreux, au bord du lac Léman, a mis en évidence une première réalité: le système politique décentralisé, des communes à la Confédération en passant par les cantons. «Si la Suisse a une économie si robuste, c'est en grande partie grâce au fédéralisme», a fait valoir Tiber Adler, du groupe de réflexion libéral Avenir Suisse. Personne ne l'a ...
ما مدى تأثير السياسة السويسرية على نجاحها الإقتصادي؟
تَحتفظ سويسرا بِظروفٍ إطارية اقتصادية تُحسَد عليها، كما أنها تَتَصَدَّر تصنيفات التنافسية العالمية باستمرار. لكن ما مدى ارتباط هذا التفوق بنظام الحُكم المُتَّبَع في الكنفدرالية؟ مع أن تَقييم هذا النجاح الإقتصادي السويسري سهل من حيث الكَم، لكن تفسير أسبابه ليس كذلك. فكيف يُمكن لدولة لها مثل هذه السوق المحلية الصغيرة، وبعض أعلى مُعدلات الدَخل في العالم ،أن تُحافظ على مثل هذه الأرقام الثابتة للناتج المحلي الإجمالي، وأن تتوافرعلى عمالة شُبه كاملة - والأكثر إثارة للدهشة حتى - أن تَستَحوِذ على أعلى المراتب في تصنيفات التنافسية العالمية؟ قد يكون التساؤل عن هذا التفوق أشبه بالبحث عن أحد المكونات السرّية لمعنى الحياة. لكن ذلك لا يمنع الناس عن مواصلة التساؤل والإستقصاء. وأحدى الصلات المُحتملة التي نوقِشَت مؤخراً في سياق مؤتمر عُقِدَ على شاطئ مدينة مونترو، هي تلك القائمة بين النظام الفدرالي السويسري واقتصادها. وكان السؤال موضع التباحث هو: هل يؤثر النظام السياسي اللامركزي المُتَعَدد المستويات على الظروف الإطارية الإقتصادية في البلاد؟ الجواب ببساطة كان نعم. وكما جادل تيبر أدلر من مجموعة بيت ...
Schweizer Firmen misslingt die Online-Kommunikation
Um Stakeholder zu erreichen, zählt für Firmen die digitale Kommunikation. Doch eine aktuelle Studie zeigt: Nur wenigen börsenkotierten Schweizer Firmen gelingt das.
Die Veteranin aus dem Silicon Valley tritt ab
Meg Whitman verlässt ihren Chefposten bei HPE. Ob die Top-Managerin US-Präsidentin werden wolle, wird umgehend diskutiert.
دعوة مفتوحة لاكتشاف المستقبل
انطلقت فعاليات المؤتمر الوطني "سويسرا الرقمية" يوم الإثنين 20 نوفمبر 2017 في مدينة بيل/ بيين بمشاركة حوالي 700 ممثل وشخصيات من مجالات الأعمال والعلوم والسياسة والمجتمع المدني.  في هذا الصدد، صرحت وزيرة الإتصالات دوريس لويتهارد أنه "ما يزال هناك مجال للتحسين فيما يتعلق بالحكومة الإلكترونية" في سويسرا. في المقابل، تصدرت جدول أعمال المؤتمر، الذي يحتضن أكثر من 100 فعالية مختلفة، الإشكاليات المتعلقة بتبادل الآراء والأفكار بين أصحاب القرار السياسي والشركات التجارية في مجال الرقمنة.  من جهة أخرى، فتحت أكثر من 40 شركة وجامعة ومؤسسة في جميع أنحاء سويسرا أبوابها كي تتيح للجمهور والمعنيين فرصة اكتشاف العالم الرقمي وتجربة بعض تطبيقاته بشكل عملي.
Celebration of 25th Anniversary of Swiss Membership to the World Bank
World Bank President Jim Yong Kim and Federal Councillor Johann N. Schneider-Amman met for a conference in mid-August in Bern to commemorate the 25th anniversary of Switzerland joining the World Bank. The Bank’s successes and challenges of the past 25 years were discussed, as well as future avenues explored to how the World Bank might contribute to reaching the UN Sustainable Development Goals and reducing poverty worldwide.
Switzerland and the World Bank Group Partner to Make Cities Safer for Millions
WASHINGTON, October 14, 2017 – In the wake of natural disasters that have threatened millions of people and destroyed thousands of buildings and dwellings over the past few months, the future resilience of urban environments is receiving a boost of support today, as the Swiss State Secretariat for Economic Affairs (SECO) became the first donor in the World Bank’s City Resilience Program (CRP). SECO’s US$9 million investment will anchor a ten-year, multi-donor trust fund that will finance programs to advance urban resilience and safer infrastructure in the built environment throughout the developing world. The new trust fund, which will be managed by the Global Facility for Disaster Reduction and Recovery (GFDRR), comes at a turning point for urban resilience. In the past few months alone, the devastation from severe flooding in South Asia, the hurricane destruction experienced throughout the Caribbean and the Gulf of Mexico, and the extensive damage caused by two earthquakes in Mexico have underscored that infrastructure is particularly vulnerable to the impact of natural disasters. Global average annual losses in the built environment are already estimated at US$314 billion. That number could increase by more than $100 billion by 2030, when urban areas – which are already home to more than 55 percent of the global population, and continue to grow by 1.4 million people each week – will concentrate an even greater majority of the world’s people and assets.  As stated in the recent World Bank/GFDRR Investing in Urban Resilience report, without investment in urban resilience, climate change and natural disasters could reverse development gains, sending up to 77 million urban residents into poverty. To address these challenges, CRP will work to facilitate ambitious, large-scale urban resilience investments in developing countries worldwide. Projects are already in the pipeline for Bolivia and Ghana, with discussions underway for future engagements in countries ranging from Colombia and Peru to Morocco and Vietnam. The program’s goal is to shift away from the traditional model of investment in urban resilience, which tends to be sector- or industry-specific. Instead, the CRP aims to support a more comprehensive approach to building a city’s resilience, with technical and financial solutions that bridge disciplines and span sectors. The key to CRP’s holistic approach is an integrated platform for implementing resilience-enhancing measures, including infrastructure upgrades, stronger governance and policies, and broader financing options for capital investment. Those options will be crucial, since global demand for urban infrastructure investment is estimated at US$4.5–5.4 trillion per year. To address those needs, CRP will focus on enabling the World Bank Group to serve as a broker between public and private sectors, with special focus on stimulating investment from private capital, institutional investors, donor aid and finance, sovereign wealth funds, and other multilateral development banks. In this endeavor, SECO is a valuable early investor. CRP will have the advantage of Swiss research and private sector knowledge, particularly in sectors like disaster insurance. The Swiss expertise will complement that of the World Bank and GFDRR, which have broad experience in building and financing urban resilience. In the past five years, the World Bank’s engagement in urban resilience has averaged nearly US$2 billion annually across 41 countries. CRP will scale up these activities, and is poised to have an enormous impact on the future of cities. Sixty percent of the land projected to be urban by 2030 has yet to be built. Much of that growth will take place in the developing world, with 90 percent of urban growth through 2050 expected in Asia and sub-Saharan Africa alone. Decisions made right now about urban infrastructure investments, buildings, and land use will have huge implications in the next several decades. These decisions could prove the difference between large, fragile, vulnerable urban areas, and the sustainable development of resilient cities that protect the safety of millions of urban residents.
Statement by World Bank Group Senior Vice President Mahmoud Mohieldin at the High-Level Pledging Event for the Humanitarian Crisis in Yemen
Honorable Ministers, Secretary General Guterres, Excellencies. Yemen is facing an unprecedented humanitarian crisis that requires our urgent collective attention and response. The World Bank is particularly concerned about the country’s deeply worrisome food crisis, that has famine as a tangible risk in the country. Yemen’s public institutions have increasingly struggled in the last months and humanitarian partners recognize that it is beyond both their capacity and proper role to provide budget support for these institutions or to replace them altogether. I just arrived from Washington DC where the food crisis in a number of African countries and Yemen, was a focus of the Bank’s Spring Meetings that concluded on Sunday. World Bank Group (WBG) President Jim Kim, in a panel co-chaired with UN Secretary-General, highlighted that we must act with great urgency to prevent the situation from getting far worse.  What we are seeing in Yemen is an implementation of the Commitment to Action under the Humanitarian-Development Nexus, and the Grand bargain, and operationalizes the new UN-WB Partnership Framework that was signed just two days ago (on 23 April). The new framework focuses on building resilience for the most vulnerable people by reducing poverty, promoting shared prosperity, enhancing food security, and sustaining peace in crisis-affected situations. This framework, signed by UN Secretary-General António Guterres and World Bank Group President Jim Yong Kim, is in response to global calls for our institutions to work more closely together on prevention and reducing needs, risks, and vulnerability as the world faces a spike in violent conflict. We have developed new modalities of World Bank operations in Yemen which are considered the most advanced example of how humanitarian and development actors can work together in the much needed New Way of Working.  For the first time has core country International Development Association (IDA) funds been committed - via the UN - for a country in conflict. The Bank’s Yemen emergency portfolio grew from USD50 million to USD500 million just over the last ten months, and is about to increase further. Our Emergency Operations build on our two decades of experience and partnerships with Yemeni local institutions that provide essential services.  To preserve this Yemeni service delivery capacity, the Bank has forged a partnership with UNDP, UNICEF and WHO to continue supporting local capacity to provide income support, community-based service delivery, and critical service delivery in health and nutrition.  The WBG is considering a package of interventions to rapidly address the supply and demand side of Yemen’s food crisis.  Our response package includes (1) a USD 200 million Emergency Cash Transfer program that would benefit approximately 1.5 million poor and vulnerable households in all 22 governorates of Yemen and be implemented in partnership with UNICEF. (2) We are also considering USD 80 million additional financing to our Emergency Health and Nutrition Project to address the worsening health and nutrition status of the vulnerable, particularly children and women.  The proposed additional IDA grant will be made available to UNICEF and WHO to support their response to the deteriorating health status in Yemen.  (3) A Global Agriculture Food Security Program Grant for USD 36 million is expected to target poor households/smallholders, particularly women, returnees, and farmers who lost their livelihood due to the ongoing conflict. The Project is proposed to be implemented by the FAO and the Yemen Social Fund for Development.  (4) A Trade Finance Facility for Food Imports will address constraints on financing food imports. The proposed mechanism would establish a USD 500 million uncommitted and secured trade finance facility to finance imports of wheat and rice by local importers. The facility would need to be secured by a cash collateral balance, mobilized from the international donor community, through a WBG proposal led by the IFC and supported by the IMF. Excellencies, Ladies and Gentlemen we are determined to continue our support to Yemen in this critical time of crisis. However, we emphasis that the hostilities and causes of destruction of Yemen need to end. There is very little sustainable development aid can do while hostilities and loss of human lives continue. We are committed to support Yemen in its reconstruction and development process as soon as hostilities and the war end. We hope that moment arrives rather sooner than later. The people of Yemen deserve this chance. 
Remarks by WBG SVP Mahmoud Mohieldin at the UN Economic Commission for Europe High Level Thematic Discussion
“Mobilizing Resources in Support of the Implementation of the 2030 Agenda” I would like to thank the UN Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) for the invitation to join the sixty-seventh session of the Commission, on the occasion of UNECE’s 70th anniversary. This gathering provides a unique opportunity for UNECE member states to develop a collective vision of the future of the region -- on the path towards sustainable development, and guided by the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The World Bank Group is strongly committed to delivering on the 2030 Agenda and partnering with the UN System and other key stakeholders. Reflecting this commitment, the Bank Group created the unit that I lead, the Senior Vice Presidency for the 2030 Development Agenda, United Nations Relations and Partnerships, to coordinate the its efforts on the 2030 Agenda, with offices in DC, NY, and here in Geneva. I am particularly pleased to be here today, not only because of the centrality of this discussion, but also because of the strong cooperation between the World Bank Group and UNECE on key areas of the SDGs, including:  transport and infrastructure; road safety; climate change and sustainable energy; PPPs, including standards; and statistics on the SDGs. We are close to the two-year anniversary of the Addis Ababa Action Agenda. In 2015, when the UN and the development banks met in Addis Ababa, we knew that to meet what are now called the global goals, the world had to move the discussion from ‘Billions’ in official development assistance to ‘Trillions’ in investments of all kinds: public and private, national and global, in both capital and capacity. ‘Billions to trillions’ was the shorthand we used to describe the scale of finance we needed. A lot has happened in the last two years, and a lot more has to happen to realize that ambition. We can point to some progress, but there are also new challenges emerging. In the Spring Meetings last week, one of the words we heard the most is “uncertainty,” and how this has increased in recent years.  Indeed, the world is confronted with a number of uncertainties: ·         Forced displacement is a global crisis affecting all of us. ·         We are confronted with spillovers from conflict. ·         Threats from pandemics, famine, and climate change put hard-earned development gains at risk. ·         Inequalities are growing within countries. ·         We are confronting major demographic changes, which can alter the course of development if not dealt with adequately. ·         Global economic growth hit a significant low point last year. Investment growth fell to 3.4 percent from 10 percent on average in 2010. ·         Despite stimulus in major economies and the beginning of moderate growth in 2017, rising trade protectionist policies put these gains at risk.  ·         There is uncertainty about policy direction in major economies, which can further constrain investment. To succeed on the immense tasks ahead of us, we have to fundamentally change our approach to development finance.  We believe that all development finance institutions should be working to crowd-in private capital through a set of principles that will maximize resources and benefits for the poor. We’re not there yet, but this is how we think we should proceed in order to get there. First, for every project we support, we have to ask the question, “Can the private sector finance this on commercial terms?” In 2006, the Government of Jordan was working with the World Bank Group to finance improvements to the Queen Alia International Airport in Amman. This could have been financed solely by public money, but the government was interested to see if they could bring in the private sector. The Jordanian Government and the World Bank Group worked together to lay the groundwork for private investment. When IFC put an appropriate deal structure in place, and invested $270 million dollars of its own capital, we were able to attract enough commercial financing to cover the rest of the project. The government contracted the airport’s operations to a French company, which pays Jordan an annual fee. It’s a genuine public-private partnership. Jordan receives 54 percent of the net revenue -- and they’re making money every year. Second, we need to encourage upstream reforms, which requires working with governments to support policy regulatory adjustments that make projects commercially viable. We are not talking about reviving an approach where the answer to poorly run public services, or unprofitable state-owned enterprises, was often an over-simplified attempt at privatization. Today, we’re much more focused on whether the regulatory context provides incentives for efficient management, whether commercial principles are being applied consistently, and whether subsidies for services are transparent and focused on the poor – and ideally, funded without interfering with commercial viability. Third, we have to use public or concessional finance in innovative ways to mitigate risk, and use blended finance to support private sector investment. Our new tools include the $2.5-billion-dollar IDA Private Sector Window, part of our record $75-billion replenishment of IDA, our fund for the poorest nations. Among other things, it includes a Risk Mitigation Facility to provide project-based guarantees without sovereign indemnity, and a Local Currency Facility to mitigate currency risk when markets are not yet developed. Ongoing efforts must be maintained to develop effective and efficient domestic resource mobilization policies to help generate economic growth. This includes strong taxation and public financial management systems. The World Bank Group, IMF, OECD, and UN are working together to develop comprehensive toolkits to promote good practices across a variety of topics, including accessing comparable data for transfer pricing. Domestic resource mobilization efforts are also often hampered by issues related to corruption and the illicit flow of finances.  As noted in the Addis Agenda, governance and the rule of law are critical to tackle these illicit flows.  The World Bank Group and the MDBs are supporting work in the area of governance, anti-corruption, and asset recovery, in particular through the partnership with the UN on the Stolen Asset Recovery Initiative (or STAR). Another strategic priority for the development finance landscape and the World Bank Group is to address situations of fragility, conflict and violence, and forced displacement. Increasingly we are engaging earlier to reduce risks. IDA will double resources to address fragility, conflict and violence, and provide $2 billion dollars to finance projects for refugees and host communities. This includes a provision for greater access to a private sector window for conflict-affected and fragile countries. But we also recognize that middle-income countries, which host substantial numbers of refugees, must also be supported with access to finance to meet the costs of their contribution to this global public good. In summary, there is a great convergence of ideas to support the promise of the billions-to-trillions agenda, but the risks of sliding back are still there. We need stronger and deeper partnerships across the humanitarian and development spheres, between civil society, and the public and private sectors. There are ways for us to fulfill the commitments of the billions-to-trillions agenda, but it will take action from all of the relevant actors – and very soon -- if we are to stay on track to achieve the SDGs by 2030, and leave no one behind. 
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