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Num Relance: Inclusão Social em África
Muito embora tenham sido dados grandes passos no sentido da redução da pobreza em África, metade das pessoas mais pobres do mundo vive nesta região. As estimativas mais recentes sugerem que a percentagem da população que vive em pobreza extrema baixou de 57% em 1990 para 41% em 2013 (Beegle et al. 2016, Banco Mundial 2016a). Contudo, os mais pobres do mundo irão concentrar-se cada vez mais em África: 389 milhões de pessoas em África ainda viviam com menos de USD 1,90 por dia em 2013, mais gente do que em todas as outras regiões combinadas (Banco Mundial 2016a). A redução da pobreza em África também fica atrás de outras regiões: a Ásia Oriental e a Ásia Austral começaram com taxas de pobreza idênticas na década de 90 mas, actualmente, as suas taxas de pobreza estão bastante mais baixas, situando-se em 4% e 15% respectivamente (Beegle et al. 2016, Banco Mundial 2016a). Por último, a região não apenas acolhe o maior número de pobres mas, os pobres de África, em média, vivem com muito menos de USD 1,90 por dia, o limiar de pobreza extrema (Banco Mundial 2016a). Nestas circunstâncias, pôr fim à pobreza extrema exige uma acção urgente em África e será necessária uma perspectiva de inclusão social para o efeito: a análise da pobreza terá de ir além da identificação de factores correlacionados, para descobrir as suas causas subjacentes, fazendo perguntas tais como por que razão certos grupos estão sobrerepresentados entre os pobres, e por que motivo algumas pessoas não têm acesso à educação, saúde e outros serviços. Inclusão social é o processo que permite melhorar as condições para os indivíduos e grupos participarem na sociedade (Banco Mundial 2013a). Os indivíduos participam na sociedade através de três domínios interrelacionados: mercados (p.ex. trabalho, terra, habitação, crédito), serviços (e.g. electricidade, saúde, educação, água) e espaços (e.g. político, cultural, físico, social). Melhorar as condições, segundo as quais as pessoas participam na sociedade, significa fortalecer a sua capacidade, oportunidade e dignidade. A identidade é o motor principal da exclusão social: os indivíduos e os grupos são excluídos com base na sua identidade. Entre as identidades de grupo mais comuns, que resultam em exclusão, estão o género, raça, casta, etnia, religião, idade, estatuto profissional, localização e situação de incapacidade. A exclusão social, baseada nos atributos destes grupos, pode levar a uma posição social mais baixa, muitas vezes acompanhada de resultados inferiores em termos de rendimento, dotações de capital humano, acesso a emprego e serviços, e voz na tomada de decisões, tanto a nível nacional como local. Em África, embora a exclusão social tenha muitas caras, destacam-se as seguintes: O número de jovens em África está a crescer rapidamente, o que apresenta, ao mesmo tempo, oportunidades e riscos. Cerca de 50% da população na região tem menos de 25 anos de idade (Banco Mundial 2014). Até 2050, África terá 362 milhões de pessoas com idade entre os 15 e 24 anos (Banco Mundial 2014). Este aumento rápido contrasta fortemente com o Médio Oriente e o Norte de África, onde o crescimento na dimensão deste grupo etário estabilizou, e até mesmo com a Ásia Oriental, onde os números são dominados pela China devendo a dimensão deste grupo etário cair de 350 milhões em 2010 para 225 milhões até 2050 (Banco Mundial 2014). Com a adopção de políticas e programas certos, uma população jovem oferece oportunidades extraordinárias para um “dividendo demográfico”. Mas, nos próximos 10 anos, prevê-se que, na melhor das hipóteses, apenas um em cada quatro jovens em África irá encontrar um emprego com salário (Banco Mundial 2014). Esta falta de oportunidades não é só uma ameaça à realização do dividendo demográfico. No pior dos cenários, pode contribuir para a radicalização e a violência. A título de exemplo, um estudo no Quénia sugeriu que 57% dos inquiridos do al-Shabaab juntaram-se ao grupo quando tinham menos de 24 anos (Botha 2014). As oportunidades para as mulheres, em África, estão muito condicionadas, sobretudo por causa da violência e da insegurança. 46% das mulheres em África experimentaram violência sexual por parte de alguém que não é o seu parceiro, ou violência física ou sexual por um parceiro íntimo, ou ambas (Organização Mundial de Saúde, 2013). Na República Democrática do Congo (RDC), por exemplo, cerca de 1,7 a 1,8 milhões de mulheres reportaram ter sido violadas ao longo da vida (Peterman et al. 2011). O acesso aos serviços de saúde materna continua a ser um desafio, pelo que dar à luz permanece uma potencial ameaça à vida das mulheres: mais de 200 mil mulheres em África ainda morrem, todos os anos, ao dar à luz (Banco Mundial 2015a). A falta de voz das mulheres nas decisões que dizem respeito às suas vidas está no centro de muitos destes problemas. No Malawi e na RDC, por exemplo, 34% e 28% das mulheres casadas, respectivamente, não participam nas decisões sobre como gastar os seus rendimentos (Banco Mundial 2011). Ao mesmo tempo, 26% dos agregados familiares em África têm à frente uma mulher e formam um sub-grupo particularmente vulnerável (Beegle et al. 2016). Contudo, África também tem uma taxa elevada de empreendedorismo feminino, de 33% (Banco Mundial 2016b), ilustrando o potencial e a resiliência das mulheres na região, o qual pode contribuir para uma aceleração do desenvolvimento no continente. As deslocações forçadas são um outro desafio à inclusão em África. Em virtude das deslocações forçadas, um sintoma de conflito, de perseguição, de violação dos direitos humanos, de desastres naturais e de falha de governação, a região acolhia 5,1 milhões de refugiados no fim de 2016, ou 30% dos refugiados mundiais (ACNUR 2017). Enquanto os refugiados enfrentam uma situação de dependência da ajuda e uma vida num acampamento, as comunidades que geralmente os recebem pertencem às mais pobres e mais excluídas nos seus respectivos países, vivendo em zonas fronteiriças subdesenvolvidas e isoladas. Turkana County, no Quénia, que acolhe o campo de refugiados de Kakuma, tem um índice de pobreza de 88% comparativamente à média nacional de 45% (Gabinete de Estatísticas do Quénia, 2014). A presença prolongada de refugiados aumenta os desafios para estas comunidades de acolhimento. A grave degradação ambiental, por exemplo, tem impactos profundos nos seus meios de subsistência. Mas a presença de refugiados também tem alguns aspectos positivos para as comunidades que os recebem. O Produto Regional Bruto (PRB) de Turkana está permanentemente a aumentar 3,4% em resultado da presença de refugiados e o emprego total regista um crescimento de 2,9%. As medições do consumo num raio de 5 km do campo são cerca de 35% mais altas do que noutras partes do condado (Sanghi et al. 2016). Com a adopção das medidas certas, poderá promover-se o desenvolvimento inclusivo dos refugiados e dos seus anfitriões. O conflito prolongado na região criou também um outro grupo em risco de exclusão: os ex-combatentes. Há 20 países na região que estão classificados como frágeis ou países afectados por conflitos[1]. O Corno de África e a Região dos Grandes Lagos estão em conflito há 20 anos. Em 2015, o Banco Mundial estimava que existiam 194 mil combatentes em grupos armados em África[2]. Um estudo de 2016, encomendado pelo Programa Transitório de Desmobilização e Reintegração (TDRP) administrado pelo Banco Mundial, sobre movimentos armados no Mali concluiu que a maioria dos ex-combatentes eram jovens, no grupo etário dos 18-40 anos, correspondendo a 79% do total desta faixa. A maioria dos ex-combatentes entrevistados eram casados (76,7%) e 67,4% tinham a seu cargo 6-10 dependentes, o que aponta para a necessidade premente de os apoiar e reintegrar (Banco Mundial 2017a). Praticamente 1 em cada 10 adultos em idade activa, em África, tem uma deficiência (Mitra et al. 2013)[3]. As pessoas com deficiências têm, geralmente, uma taxa de conclusão do ensino primário inferior à das pessoas sem deficiências. Entre os sete países, para os quais existem dados comparáveis do Inquérito Mundial da Saúde (WHS), a Maurícia é quem apresenta a maior disparidade (23%) em termos de média de anos de escolaridade, enquanto o Mali tem a maior disparidade (33%) em termos de taxa de conclusão do ensino primário (Mitra et al. 2011). O fraco acesso aos serviços é, muitas vezes, causado por estigma e discriminação, que em casos extremos pode ameaçar a vida das pessoas com deficiências. Pessoas com albinismo, por exemplo, são vítimas de mitos perigosos em várias partes da África: acredita-se que são fantasmas – não seres humanos – e que as partes do seu corpo podem trazer riqueza e boa sorte (Under the Same Sun 2014). Na Tanzânia, estas atitudes culturais provocaram mortes documentadas de pessoas com albinismo, entre 2007 e 2013 (Under the Same Sun 2014). As tendências actuais em África contribuem para estes desafios de exclusão. Dada a dinâmica populacional, por exemplo, o número de pessoas que vivem em pobreza extrema em África aumentou em mais de 100 milhões, embora a proporção de população tenha baixado (Beegle et al. 2016). Além do mais, a desigualdade cria um desafio: sete dos 10 países mais desiguais ficam em África (Beegle et al. 2016). A região está também a passar por uma rápida urbanização, com 40 000 novos habitantes das cidades, todos os dias; prevêem-se mais de 450 milhões de novos moradores urbanos entre 2010 e 2040, vivendo metade da população de África em zonas urbanas até essa data (Banco Mundial 2013b). Embora a urbanização ofereça oportunidades, desenvolva a procura de mobilidade social e altere normas e valores, ela também cria polarização: cerca de 70% da população urbana de África vive em bairros clandestinos (Banco Mundial 2013b). Por último, as alterações climáticas estão a afectar os mais pobres: estima-se que, até 2030, até 118 milhões das pessoas extremamente pobres serão expostas a secas, inundações e calor extremo em África (Shepherd et al. 2013). Não obstante, existem oportunidades para se construir um desenvolvimento inclusivo em África. O crescimento económico médio da região, de 4,5% ao ano nas últimas duas décadas, foi extraordinariamente robusto (Beegle et al. 2016). A tecnologia abre novas vias para se alcançar os mais vulneráveis: o número de linhas telefónicas fixas e móveis por 1 000 pessoas aumentou de três em 1990 para 736 em 2014 e o número de utilizadores de internet por 100 pessoas cresceu de 1,3 em 2005 para 16,7 em 2015 (Banco Mundial 2017b). A inovação e o espírito empreendedor podem contribuir adicionalmente para retirar as pessoas da pobreza e da exclusão: as startups tecnológicas africanas angariaram fundos que ultrapassaram os USD 129 milhões em 2016, tendo o número de startups que asseguraram financiamento subido cerca de 16,8% comparativamente ao ano anterior, segundo os dados compilados por Disrupt Africa (Disrupt Africa 2017). Juntamente com os seus parceiros, o Banco Mundial está a aproveitar estas oportunidades para uma África mas inclusiva, utilizando múltiplos pontos de entrada através de análise, operações e políticas. Informado por estudos analíticos sobre deslocações forçadas no Corno de África, um projecto regional abrangendo a Etiópia, Uganda, Djibuti e Quénia, por exemplo, está a dar resposta às necessidades das comunidades anfitriãs no que toca a serviços, meios de subsistência e sustentabilidade ambiental. Para apoiar as oportunidades das mulheres, um novo projecto na Nigéria centrar-se-á na capacitação económica das mulheres, enquanto intervenções na região dos Grandes Lagos e no Uganda têm por enfoque a prevenção e resposta à violência baseada em género (GBV). O Africa Gender Innovation Lab está a realizar avaliações de impacto analisando a dinâmica do género e os impactos nos géneros de uma vasta gama de projectos com vista a informar intervenções futuras. Com o apoio do Programa Transitório de Desmobilização e Reintegração (TDRP), operações na RDC, República Centro-Africana, Ruanda e Mali apoiaram a desmobilização e reintegração de ex-combatentes, fornecendo-lhes formação profissional e oportunidades de subsistência. Num projecto de desmobilização no Burundi, foi dado um enfoque especial ao encontro de soluções para os ex-combatentes com deficiências, para referir apenas um exemplo de desenvolvimento com inclusão de pessoas portadoras de deficiências. No Mali, um projecto de desenvolvimento de competências e de emprego de jovens está a ajudar os jovens a obterem as qualificações certas para conseguirem empregos. Nestas e noutras intervenções, é dada ênfase aos processos participativos e impulsionados pela comunidade, com vista a assegurar a voz e a participação dos cidadãos como os principais canais de inclusão.  ReferênciasBeegle, K., L. Christianensen, A. Dabalen, and I. Gaddis (2016): Poverty in A Rising Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.Botha, Anneli (2014): Radicalization in Kenya – Recruitment to al-Shabaab and the Mombasa Republican Council. ISS Paper 265. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.Disrupt Africa (2017): Disrupt Africa African Tech Startups Funding Report 2016.Kenya Bureau of Statistics (2014): Socio-Economic Atlas of Kenya – Depicting the National Population Census by County and Sub-Location. Nairobi: Kenya Bureau of Statistics.Mitra, S., A. Posarac, B. Vick (2011): Disability and Poverty in Developing Countries – A Snapshot from the World Health Survey. Washington DC: World Bank.Mitra, S., A. Posarac, and B. Vick (2013): Disability and Poverty in Developing Countries: A Multidimensional Study. World Development, 41, 1-18.Peterman, A., T. Palermo, and Cc Bredenkamp (2011): Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo. American Journal of Public Health 101 (6): 1060 - 1067.Sanghi, A., H. Onder, V. Vemuru (2016): “Yes” In My Backyard? Washington DC: World Bank.Shepherd, A., T. Mitchell, K. Lewis, A. Lenhardt, L. Jones, L. Scott, and R. Muir-Wood (2013): The Geography of Poverty, Disasters and Climate Extremes in 2030. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI).Under the Same Sun (2013): Children With Albinism: Violence and Displacement. Dar es Salaam: Under the Same Sun.UNHCR (2017): Global Trends – Forced Displacement in 2016. Geneva: UNHCR.World Bank (2011): Gender Equality and Development – World Development Report 2012. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2013a): Inclusion Matters – The Foundation for Shared Prosperity. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2013b): Harnessing Urbanization to End Poverty and Boost Prosperity in Africa – An Action Agenda for Transformation. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2014): Youth Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2015a): World Bank Gender Data Portal – Number of Maternal Deaths. Accessed October 8, 2017.World Bank (2015b): Forced Displacement and Mixed Migration in the Horn of Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2016a): Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2016 – Taking On Inequality. Washington DC: World Bank. World Bank (2016b): World Bank Gender Data Portal – Firms with Female Participation in Ownership. Washington DC: World Bank. Accessed October 8, 2017.World Bank (2017a): Project Appraisal Document Mali Reinsertion of Ex-Combatants Project. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2017b): Africa’s Pulse – An Analysis of Issues Shaping Africa’s Economic Future. Volume 15. Washington DC: World Bank. World Health Organization (2013): Global and Regional Estimates of Violence Against Women – Prevalence and Health Effects of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-Partner Sexual Violence. Geneva: World Health Organization.   [1] Conforme informação do Banco Mundial em Harmonized List of Fragile Situations for fiscal year 2018. [2] Cálculos internos do Programa Transitório de Desmobilização e Reintegração (TDRP). [3] É uma estimativa da prevalência de incapacidade entre as pessoas em idade activa (18 aos 65 anos) em 7 países africanos para os quais existem dados comparáveis do Inquérito Mundial da Saúde (WHS): Burkina Faso, Gana, Quénia, Malawi, Maurícia, Zâmbia e Zimbabwe. 
20 Top African Start-Ups Enter World Bank Group Digital Acceleration Program
CAPE TOWN, South Africa, Nov. 6, 2017–Twenty of the most promising African digital start-ups will take part in the XL Africa residency, the flagship initiative of the business accelerator launched last April by the World Bank Group’s infoDev program. From Nov. 6-17 in Cape Town, the entrepreneurs will have the opportunity to learn from their mentors and peers, increase their regional visibility, and get access to potential corporate partners and investors. The residency will conclude with the XL Africa Venture Showcase, a regional event organized in association with the African Angel Investor Summit, in which the entrepreneurs will present their business models to a select audience of corporations and investors. With support from African investment groups, XL Africa will help the start-ups attract early stage capital between US$250,000 and US$1.5 million. Selected from a pool of over 900 applicants, these start-ups specialize in digital solutions for the African market, including fin-tech, transportation, health care, education, human resources, and B2B. All companies provide a digital product or service currently available in one or more African markets and show potential to scale across the region. “We are pleased by the interest infoDev and XL Africa generated across the continent in just a few months,” said Klaus Tilmes, Director of the Trade & Competitiveness Global Practice at the World Bank Group. “XL Africa attracted firms with high-growth potential; many have female co-founders, have already raised early stage investment, and have demonstrated significant market traction. The number and quality of applications received are a clear testament to the competitiveness of African start-ups and the key role they play in Africa’s growing digital economy.” The selection for XL Africa was conducted by a panel of industry experts from the International Finance Corporation (IFC); implementing partners IMC Worldwide, Koltai & Co, and Venture Capital for Africa (VC4A); as well as investors from prominent African funds, including Knife Capital, 4Di Capital LLP, Singularity Investments, TLcom Capital LLP, Goodwell Investments, Nest Africa, and Africa Tech Ventures. “We encountered very strong companies, particularly in the transportation, HR, and data analytics sectors,” said Danai Musandu, investment associate at Goodwell Investments. “We also observed signals of a nascent pipeline of digital companies beyond the traditional hot spots of Nigeria, Kenya, and South Africa. These talented entrepreneurs are among those who are going to drive innovation on the continent and offer great opportunities for investors looking at African markets.” The selected start-ups participating in the event are:Aerobotics (Data, South Africa)Asoko Insight (Data, Kenya, Ethiopia, Ghana, United Kingdom, and Nigeria)Coin Afrique (Marketplace, Senegal and Benin)Edgepoint Digital (Jamii) (FinTech - Insurance, Tanzania)Electronic Settlement Limited (FinTech, Nigeria)Lynk Jobs Ltd. (HR, Kenya)MAX (Transport, Nigeria)ogaVenue (Venue Platform, Nigeria)Ongair (SME Services, Kenya)Pesabazaar.com (FinTech, Kenya)Prepclass (EdTech, Nigeria)Printivo (Printing, Nigeria)Rasello Company Ltd. (SME Services, Tanzania)Rensource (Energy, Nigeria)Sendy Ltd. (Delivery, Kenya)Snapplify (Publishing, South Africa and Kenya)Sokowatch (Delivery, Kenya)TalentBase (HR, Nigeria)Timbuktu (Travel, South Africa)Tizeti Network Ltd. (Connectivity, Nigeria) For more information on the program and the selected start-ups, visit www.xl-africa.com. XL Africa is funded by the governments of Finland, Norway, and Sweden, and administered by the World Bank Group with implementation support from IMC Worldwide, VC4A, and Koltai & Co. To attend the African Angel Investor Summit, visit https://vc4a.com/aais2017/
Building Ethiopia’s Capacity for Collecting Data
BAHIR DAR, November 10, 2017 – Ethiopia has one of Africa’s most renowned statistics gathering agency, especially for agricultural statistics. But not many Ethiopians are aware of the contribution it makes toward public policy. “I’d heard of CSA before,” said Meron Eshetu, a university student and finalist at a national Infographic Competition in the Ethiopian city of Bahir Dar in August, referring to the country’s Central Statistical Agency (CSA). “But I didn’t realize they produced such a wide range of data.” Meron was attending a weeklong bazaar for statisticians and journalists. At it, CSA put its processes on public display, laying out its transition from a paper-based system to the digital data collection system it uses now. And it gave examples of some of the surveys it has carried out: on business, the population, household prices, and agriculture.
El impacto distributivo de los impuestos y las transferencias monetarias: la experiencia de ocho países en desarrollo
El actual debate sobre las políticas relativas a la redistribución fiscal en los países de ingreso bajo y mediano se concentra sobre todo en el poder de las políticas fiscales para reducir la desigualdad, pero en menor medida en el impacto de dichas políticas en la calidad de vida de los pobres. Sin embargo, en un nuevo libro publicado por el Banco Mundial titulado The Distributional Impact of Taxes and Transfers: Evidence from Eight Developing Countries (El impacto distributivo de los impuestos y las transferencias monetarias: la experiencia de ocho países en desarrollo) (PDF, en inglés) se señala que si bien los sistemas fiscales siempre son igualadores, con frecuencia reducen el consumo real de bienes de los pobres. El libro, publicado en colaboración con el Instituto Compromiso con la Equidad (CEQ) de la Universidad de Tulane, proporciona una evaluación de los efectos de la aplicación de impuestos y del gasto público en los ingresos de distintos hogares, individuos y grupos socioeconómicos, así como en la distribución del ingreso en toda la población. El texto usa el marco metodológico común desarrollado por el Instituto CEQ para estimar el impacto combinado de los impuestos y las transferencias monetarias y la contribución marginal de cada intervención individual para reducir la pobreza y la desigualdad, además de suministrar resultados comparables entre países.
أثر توزيع الضرائب والتحويلات: شواهد من ثمانية بلدان نامية
تركز المناقشة الحالية للسياسات بشأن إعادة توزيع المالية العامة في البلدان منخفضة الدخل والبلدان متوسطة الدخل على قوة سياسة المالية العامة للحد من عدم المساواة، غير أنها تركز بصورة أقل على أثر السياسة المالية على مستوى معيشة الفقراء. إلا أن كتابا جديدا صدر عن البنك الدولي بعنوان أثر توزيع الضرائب والتحويلات: شواهد من ثمانية بلدان نامية يكشف عن أنه على الرغم من أن نظم المالية العامة تعمل دائما على تحقيق المساواة، فإنها غالبا ما تقلل الاستهلاك الفعلي لسلع الفقراء. يقدم الكتاب، الذي نُشر بالتعاون مع معهد الالتزام بالمساواة التابع لجامعة تولين، تقييما لآثار الضرائب والنفقات العامة على دخل الأسر المعيشية والأفراد والمجموعات الاجتماعية الاقتصادية المختلفة وأيضا توزيع الدخل على السكان بأكملهم. ويستخدم الكتاب الإطار المنهجي العام الذي وضعه المعهد لتقدير حجم الأثر المركب للضرائب والتحويلات، والمساهمة الهامشية لكل تدخل فردي في الحد من الفقر وعدم المساواة، فضلا عن تحقيق نتائج قابلة للمقارنة فيما بين البلدان.  
The Distributional Impact of Taxes and Transfers: Evidence from Eight Developing Countries
The current policy discussion on fiscal redistribution in low- and middle-income countries focuses on the power of fiscal policy to reduce inequality but less on the impact of fiscal policy on the standard of living of the poor. However, a new World Bank book—The Distributional Impact of Taxes and Transfers: Evidence from Eight Developing Countries—reveals that although fiscal systems are always equalizing, they often reduce the actual consumption of goods of the poor. The book, published in collaboration with Tulane University’s Commitment to Equity (CEQ) Institute, provides an assessment of the effects of taxation and public expenditures on the income of different households, individuals, and socioeconomic groups as well as the distribution of income across the entire population. The volume uses the common methodological framework developed by the CEQ Institute to estimate the combined impact of taxes and transfers, the marginal contribution of each individual intervention in reducing poverty and inequality, as well as provide results that are comparable across countries.
税收和转移支付分配的影响:八个发展中国家的实证资料
当前就低收入和中等收入国家财政再分配进行的政策讨论重点讨论财政政策对降低不平等程度的作用,但对财政政策对贫困人口生活水平的影响讨论较少。不过,世界银行一本新书——《税收和转移支付分配的影响:八个发展中国家的实证资料》揭示,尽管财政体系总是体现了平等化,但通常会减少贫困人口对商品的实际消费量。 本书由世界银行与美国杜兰大学“对平等的承诺”(CEQ)研究所联合发表,对税收和公共支出对各类家庭、个人和社会经济团体以及对收入在全体人群中的分配的影响进行了评估。本书采用CEQ研究所开发的通用方法框架,对税收和转移支付的组合影响以及单项干预措施对减少贫困和不平等现象的边际贡献进行了测算,并提供了便于各国间比较的测算结果。
Social Inclusion in Africa
Although great strides have been made towards poverty reduction in Africa, the region hosts half of the world’s extreme poor. Latest estimates suggest that the share of the African population in extreme poverty declined from 57 percent in 1990 to 41 percent in 2013 (Beegle et al. 2016, World Bank 2016a). Yet, the world’s extreme poor will be increasingly concentrated in Africa: 389 million people in Africa were still living on less than US$1.90 a day in 2013, more than in all other regions combined (World Bank 2016a). Poverty reduction in Africa also lags other regions: East Asia and South Asia started out with similar poverty rates in the 1990s, but their poverty rates are much lower today at 4 percent and 15 percent respectively (Beegle et al. 2016, World Bank 2016a). Lastly, the region not only houses the largest number of the poor, but Africa’s poor are, on average, living much further below the US$1.90-a-day extreme poverty threshold (World Bank 2016a). Ending global poverty therefore requires urgent action in Africa and a social inclusion lens will be indispensable towards this: It takes poverty analysis beyond identifying correlates to uncovering its underlying causes, asking questions such as why certain groups are overrepresented among the poor and why some people lack access to education, health or other services. Social inclusion is the process of improving the terms for individuals and groups to take part in society (World Bank 2013a). Individuals take part in society through three interrelated domains: markets (e.g. labor, land, housing, credit), services (e.g. electricity, health, education, water) and spaces (e.g. political, cultural, physical, social). To improve the terms on which people take part in society means to enhance their ability, opportunity and dignity. Identity is the key driver of social exclusion: Individuals and groups are excluded or included based on their identity. Among the most common group identities resulting in exclusion are gender, race, caste, ethnicity, religion, age, occupational status, location, and disability status. Social exclusion based on such group attributes can lead to lower social standing, often accompanied by lower outcomes in terms of income, human capital endowments, access to employment and services, and voice in both national and local decision making. In Africa, while social exclusion has many faces, some stand out: The number of youth in Africa is growing rapidly, presenting both opportunities and risks. 50 percent of the population in the region are under 25 years of age (World Bank 2014). By 2050, Africa will have 362 million people aged between 15 and 24 (World Bank 2014). This rapid increase contrasts starkly with the Middle East and North Africa, where increases in the size of this cohort have steadied, and even with East Asia, where numbers are dominated by China and the size of this cohort is expected to fall from 350 million in 2010 to 225 million by 2050 (World Bank 2014). With the right policies and programs in place, a young population offers tremendous opportunities for a “demographic dividend”. Yet, over the next 10 years, only one in four of Africa’s youth are expected to find a wage job at best (World Bank 2014). This lack of opportunities not only threatens the realization of the demographic dividend. At its worst, it can contribute to radicalization and violence. A study in Kenya, for instance, suggested that 57 percent of al-Shabaab respondents joined the group when they were below 24 years (Botha 2014). The opportunities for women in Africa are constrained, not least, due to violence and insecurity. 46 percent of women in Africa have experienced either non-partner sexual violence or physical or sexual violence by an intimate partner, or both (World Health Organization 2013). In the Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC), for instance, approximately 1.7 to 1.8 million women reported having been raped in their lifetime (Peterman et al. 2011). Access to maternal health services is still a challenge, so that childbirth remains a potential threat to the life of women: Over 200,000 women in Africa still die each year giving birth (World Bank 2015a). Women’s lack of voice in decisions that concern their lives is at the center of many of these issues. In Malawi and DRC, for example, 34 percent and 28 percent of married women respectively are not involved in decisions about spending their earnings (World Bank 2011). At the same time, 26 percent of households in Africa are headed by women, forming a particularly vulnerable sub-group (Beegle et al. 2016). Yet, Africa also has a high rate of female entrepreneurship at 33 percent (World Bank 2016b), speaking to the potential and resilience of women in the region, which can contribute to an acceleration in the development of the continent. Forced displacement is another inclusion challenge in Africa. A symptom of conflict, persecution, human rights abuses, natural disasters and failure of governance, the region hosted 5.1 million refugees at the end of 2016, 30 percent of global refugees (UNHCR 2017). While refugees are faced with aid dependency and a life in encampment situations, the communities hosting them often belong to the poorest and most excluded in their respective country, living in secluded and underdeveloped borderlands. Turkana County in Kenya, for instance, which is home to the Kakuma refugee camp, has a poverty rate of 88 percent compared to the national average of 45 percent (Kenya Bureau of Statistics 2014). Protracted refugee presence adds to the challenges for these host communities. Severe environmental degradation, for example, has tremendous impacts on their livelihoods. However, refugee presence also comes with positives for host communities: The Gross Regional Product (GRP) of Turkana increases permanently by 3.4 percent as a result of refugee presence and total employment increases by 2.9 percent. Consumption measures within 5 km of the camp are up to 35 percent higher than in other parts of the county (Sanghi et al. 2016). With the right measures in place, inclusive development of refugees and hosts can be fostered. Protracted conflict in the region has also created another group at risk of exclusion: ex-combatants. 20 countries in the region are categorized as fragile or conflict affected[1]. The Horn of Africa and the Great Lakes Region have been in conflict for over 20 years. In 2015, the World Bank estimated that there were 194,000 combatants in armed groups in Africa[2]. A 2016 study commissioned by the World Bank-administered Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP) on armed movements in Mali found that youth comprised the majority of the ex-combatants, with the 18-40 age group representing 79 percent of them. The majority of the ex-combatants interviewed were married (76.7 percent), and 67.4 percent of them supported 6-10 dependents, pointing to the strong need for supporting and reintegrating them (World Bank 2017a). Almost 1 in 10 working-age adults in Africa has a disability (Mitra et al. 2013) [3]. Persons with disabilities oftentimes have lower primary school completion and lower employment rates than persons without disabilities. Among seven African countries for which comparable data from the World Health Survey (WHS) is available, Mauritius has the largest disparity (23 percent) in terms of average years of schooling while Malawi has the largest disparity (33 percent) in terms of primary school completion rate (Mitra et al. 2011). Lower access to services is often caused by stigma and discrimination, which in the extreme can threaten the life of persons with disabilities. Persons with albinism, for instance, are faced with dangerous myths in several parts of Africa: It is believed that they are ghost – not human beings – and that their body parts can bring wealth and good luck (Under the Same Sun 2014). In Tanzania, these cultural attitudes have resulted in 72 documented deaths of persons with albinism between 2007 and 2013 (Under the Same Sun 2014). Current trends in Africa contribute to these challenges of exclusion. Due to population momentum, for example, the number of people living in extreme poverty in Africa increased by more than 100 million although their population share declined (Beegle et al. 2016). In addition, inequality poses a challenge: Seven out of 10 most unequal countries are in Africa (Beegle et al. 2016). The region is also undergoing rapid urbanization with 40,000 new urban dwellers per day: Over 450 million new urban dwellers are expected between 2010 and 2040, with half of Africa’s population living in urban areas by that year (World Bank 2013b). While urbanization offers opportunities and demand for social mobility and changes norms and values, it also creates polarization: About 70 percent of Africa’s urban population lives in informal settlements (World Bank 2013b). Lastly, climate change is affecting the poorest: It is estimated that by 2030, up to 118 million extremely poor people will be exposed to drought, floods, and extreme heat in Africa (Shepherd et al. 2013). Yet, there are opportunities to be built upon towards inclusive development in Africa. At 4.5 percent per year over the past two decades, average economic growth in the region was remarkably robust (Beegle et al. 2016). Technology opens new avenues to reach out to the most vulnerable: the number of fixed and mobile phone lines per 1,000 people increased from three in 1990 to 736 in 2014, and the number of internet users per 100 people increased from 1.3 in 2005 to 16.7 in 2015 (World Bank 2017b). Innovation and entrepreneurial spirit can further contribute to lifting people out of poverty and exclusion: African tech startups raised funding in excess of US$129 million in 2016, with the number of startups securing funding up by 16.8 per cent compared to the previous year, according to data compiled by Disrupt Africa (Disrupt Africa 2017). Together with its partners, the World Bank is building on these opportunities towards a more inclusive Africa, using multiple entry points through analytics, operations and policy. Informed by analytical work on forced displacement in the Horn of Africa, for example, a regional project covering Ethiopia, Uganda, Djibouti and Kenya is responding to the needs of host communities regarding services, livelihoods and environmental sustainability. In support of women’s opportunities, a new project in Nigeria will focus on women’s economic empowerment, while interventions in the Great Lakes region and Uganda are focusing on the prevention and response to gender-based violence (GBV). The Africa Gender Innovation Lab is conducting impact evaluations looking at gender dynamics and gendered impacts of a broad range of projects to inform future interventions. With support from the Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP), operations in DRC, the Central African Republic, Rwanda and Mali have supported the demobilization and reintegration of ex-combatants, providing them with training and livelihoods opportunities. In a demobilization project in Burundi, special emphasis was placed on addressing ex-combatants with disabilities, to name just one example for disability-inclusive development. In Mali, a skills development and youth employment project is helping youth acquire the right skills to compete for jobs. Throughout these and other interventions, emphasis is placed on community-driven and participative processes to ensure voice and citizen engagement as key channels for inclusion.ReferencesBeegle, K., L. Christianensen, A. Dabalen, and I. Gaddis (2016): Poverty in A Rising Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.Botha, Anneli (2014): Radicalization in Kenya – Recruitment to al-Shabaab and the Mombasa Republican Council. ISS Paper 265. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.Disrupt Africa (2017): Disrupt Africa African Tech Startups Funding Report 2016.Kenya Bureau of Statistics (2014): Socio-Economic Atlas of Kenya – Depicting the National Population Census by County and Sub-Location. Nairobi: Kenya Bureau of Statistics.Mitra, S., A. Posarac, B. Vick (2011): Disability and Poverty in Developing Countries – A Snapshot from the World Health Survey. Washington DC: World Bank.Mitra, S., A. Posarac, and B. Vick (2013): Disability and Poverty in Developing Countries: A Multidimensional Study. World Development, 41, 1-18.Peterman, A., T. Palermo, and Cc Bredenkamp (2011): Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo. American Journal of Public Health 101 (6): 1060 - 1067.Sanghi, A., H. Onder, V. Vemuru (2016): “Yes” In My Backyard? Washington DC: World Bank.Shepherd, A., T. Mitchell, K. Lewis, A. Lenhardt, L. Jones, L. Scott, and R. Muir-Wood (2013): The Geography of Poverty, Disasters and Climate Extremes in 2030. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI).Under the Same Sun (2013): Children With Albinism: Violence and Displacement. Dar es Salaam: Under the Same Sun.UNHCR (2017): Global Trends – Forced Displacement in 2016. Geneva: UNHCR.World Bank (2011): Gender Equality and Development – World Development Report 2012. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2013a): Inclusion Matters – The Foundation for Shared Prosperity. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2013b): Harnessing Urbanization to End Poverty and Boost Prosperity in Africa – An Action Agenda for Transformation. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2014): Youth Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2015a): World Bank Gender Data Portal – Number of Maternal Deaths. Accessed October 8, 2017.World Bank (2015b): Forced Displacement and Mixed Migration in the Horn of Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2016a): Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2016 – Taking On Inequality. Washington DC: World Bank. World Bank (2016b): World Bank Gender Data Portal – Firms with Female Participation in Ownership. Washington DC: World Bank. Accessed October 8, 2017.World Bank (2017a): Project Appraisal Document Mali Reinsertion of Ex-Combatants Project. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2017b): Africa’s Pulse – An Analysis of Issues Shaping Africa’s Economic Future. Volume 15. Washington DC: World Bank. World Health Organization (2013): Global and Regional Estimates of Violence Against Women – Prevalence and Health Effects of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-Partner Sexual Violence. Geneva: World Health Organization.   [1] According to the World Bank’s Harmonized List of Fragile Situations for fiscal year 2018. [2] Internal calculations by the Transitional Demobilization and Reintegration Program (TDRP). [3] This is an estimate of disability prevalence among working age individuals (aged 18 to 65) in 7 African countries for which comparable data from the World Health Survey (WHS) is available: Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Mauritius, Zambia and Zimbabwe. 
L’inclusion sociale en Afrique : un rapide tour d’horizon
Malgré les importants progrès qu’elle a réalisés dans le cadre de la lutte contre la pauvreté, l’Afrique compte la moitié de la population mondiale extrêmement pauvre. La proportion de la population africaine vivant dans l’extrême pauvreté est tombée de 57 % en 1990 à 41 % en 2013 selon les dernières estimations (Beegle et al. 2016, Banque mondiale 2016a). Les groupes de population extrêmement pauvres seront toutefois de plus en plus concentrés sur le continent où 389 millions de personnes n’avaient toujours que moins de 1,90 dollar par jour pour vivre en 2013, soit un chiffre plus élevé que celui  enregistré pour l’ensemble des autres régions (Banque mondiale 2016a). La pauvreté recule par ailleurs plus lentement en Afrique que dans le reste du monde : l’Asie de l’Est et l’Asie du Sud affichaient des taux de pauvreté analogues dans les années 90, mais ces derniers ont considérablement diminué pour s’établir à 4 % et 15 %, respectivement (Beegle et al. 2016, Banque mondiale 2016a). Enfin, outre que les populations pauvres y sont plus nombreuses que partout ailleurs, celles-ci ont des revenus qui sont, en moyenne, nettement plus bas que le seuil d’extrême pauvreté, soit 1,90 dollar par jour (Banque mondiale 2016a). Il est donc impératif, pour mettre fin à la pauvreté dans le monde, de prendre des mesures sans plus attendre en Afrique et de considérer les actions menées à cette fin dans une perspective d’inclusion : il sera ainsi possible d’analyser la pauvreté, non pas seulement en recensant les facteurs de corrélation, mais en déterminant les causes fondamentales de la situation, en cherchant à savoir pourquoi certains groupes sont représentés de manière disproportionnée parmi les pauvres et pourquoi certains membres de la population n’ont pas un accès à des services, notamment  d’éducation et de santé. L’inclusion sociale s’entend du processus visant à améliorer les conditions dans lesquelles les individus et les groupes peuvent participer à la vie de la société (Banque mondiale 2013a). Les membres de la population participent à la vie de la société dans trois domaines interconnectés : les marchés  (du travail, du logement, du crédit, etc.), les services (alimentation en électricité, santé, éducation, approvisionnement en eau, etc.) et les espaces (politiques, culturels, physiques, sociaux, etc.). Il est nécessaire, pour améliorer les conditions de leur participation, de renforcer leurs capacités, de leur donner de plus amples opportunités et de leur permettre de vivre dans la dignité. L’identité est le principal facteur d’exclusion sociale. Les individus et les groupes sont exclus ou inclus selon leur identité. Les identités qui sont le plus souvent cause d’exclusion sont le sexe, le genre, la race, la caste, l’ethnicité, la religion, l’âge, le statut professionnel, le lieu de résidence et le handicap. L’exclusion sociale motivée par l’un quelconque de ces facteurs peut abaisser le statut social, ce qui va souvent de pair avec des revenus moins élevés, des dotations en capital humain plus faibles, un accès à l’emploi et aux services plus limité et peu de possibilités de se faire entendre dans le cadre des processus de prise de décision aux niveaux national et local. En Afrique, l’exclusion sociale se manifeste de diverses manières, mais certaines sont plus notables que d’autres : Le nombre de jeunes augmente rapidement en Afrique, et cette évolution offre tout autant de possibilités qu’elle pose de risques. La moitié de la population de la région a moins de 25 ans (Banque mondiale 2014). D’ici 2050, l’Afrique comptera 362 millions d’habitants âgés de 15 à 24 ans (Banque mondiale 2014). Cette forte progression offre un contraste saisissant avec la situation observée dans la région du Moyen-Orient et de l’Afrique du Nord où la taille de cette cohorte s’est stabilisée, mais aussi  en Asie de l’Est, où la Chine pèse lourdement sur les résultats et où la taille de cette cohorte devrait tomber de 350 millions en 2010 à 225 millions à l’horizon 2050 (Banque mondiale 2014). Dans un contexte caractérisé par des politiques et des programmes bien conçus, une population jeune ouvre des perspectives considérables en générant un « dividende démographique ». Au cours des 10 prochaines années, toutefois, seulement un jeune Africain sur quatre, dans le meilleur des cas, devrait trouver un emploi salarié (Banque mondiale 2014). Ce manque de débouchés non seulement compromet la réalisation du dividende démographique, mais peut aussi, dans le pire des cas, promouvoir la radicalisation et la violence. Selon une étude réalisée au Kenya, par exemple, 57 des membres d’al-Shabaab qui ont été interrogés se sont joints à ce groupe avant d’avoir 24 ans (Botha 2014). Les femmes ont, en Afrique, des possibilités qui sont en grande partie limitées par la violence et l’insécurité. Quarante-six pour cent des femmes du continent subissent des violences sexuelles d’une personne autre que leur partenaire, des violences physiques et sexuelles de leurs partenaires, ou les deux (Organisation mondiale de la santé 2013). En République démocratique du Congo (RDC), par exemple, entre 1,7 et 1,8 million de femmes ont indiqué avoir été victimes d’un viol (Peterman et al. 2011). Il est toujours difficile d’avoir accès à des services de santé maternelle, de sorte qu’un accouchement peut être dangereux ; plus de 200 000 femmes meurent en couches chaque année en Afrique (Banque mondiale 2015a). La possibilité pour les femmes de prendre part aux décisions qui les concernent est un aspect central de nombre de ces problèmes. Au Malawi et en RDC, par exemple, 34 % et 28 % des femmes mariées, respectivement, ne participent pas aux décisions concernant l’utilisation de leurs gains (Banque mondiale 2011). En même temps, 26 % des ménages africains sont dirigés par une femme, et forment un sous-groupe particulièrement vulnérable (Beegle et al. 2016). Pourtant, l’Afrique affiche un pourcentage élevé d’entrepreneures (33 %) (Banque mondiale 2016b), ce qui témoigne des possibilités et de la résilience des femmes de la région, qui pourraient contribuer à accélérer le développement du continent. Les déplacements forcés sont un autre obstacle à l’inclusion en Afrique. La région accueillait 5,1 millions de réfugiés à la fin de 2016, soit 30 % du nombre total de réfugiés à l’échelle mondiale (HCR 2017), par suite de conflits, de persécutions, de violations des droits de l’homme, de catastrophes naturelles et de défaillances de la gouvernance. Si les réfugiés sont tributaires de l’aide et obligés de vivre dans des camps, les communautés d’accueil, qui habitent dans des régions isolées et sous-développées à proximité des frontières, comptent, elles aussi, parmi les plus pauvres et les plus en butte à l’exclusion dans leur propre pays. Le comté de Turkana au Kenya, par exemple, où se trouve le camp de réfugiés de Kakuma, affiche un taux de pauvreté de 88 % alors que la moyenne nationale est de 45 % (Kenya Bureau of Statistics 2014). La présence prolongée de réfugiés accroît encore les difficultés rencontrées par les communautés d’accueil, par exemple en provoquant une forte dégradation de l’environnement qui a des répercussions considérables sur les moyens de subsistance. Elle a toutefois aussi des effets positifs : le produit régional brut (PRB) de Turkana a augmenté de manière permanente de 3,4 % et l’emploi a progressé de 2,9 % au total par suite de la présence des réfugiés. Les indicateurs de la consommation  à proximité du camp sont plus élevés de 35 % dans un rayon de 5 km que dans d’autres parties du comté (Sanghi et al. 2016). Il est possible de promouvoir un développement inclusif en faveur des réfugiés et des populations d’accueil en prenant les mesures nécessaires. Les conflits prolongés qui sévissent dans la région ont créé un autre groupe de population risquant d’être exclu de la société, à savoir les ex-combattants. Vingt pays de la région sont classés dans la catégorie des pays fragiles ou touchés par un conflit[1]. La corne de l’Afrique et la région des Grands Lacs sont le théâtre de conflits depuis plus de 20 ans. Selon les estimations de la Banque mondiale, en 2015, l’Afrique comptait 194 000 combattants dans des groupes armés[2]. Une étude des mouvements armés au Mali, réalisées à la demande du Programme transitoire de démobilisation et de réintégration (TDRP), qui est administré par la Banque, montre que les jeunes constituent la majorité des ex-combattants, et que 79 % de ces derniers ont entre 18 et 40 ans. La plupart des ex-combattants interrogés sont mariés (76,7 %), et 67,4 % d’entre eux ont entre 6 et 10 personnes à leur charge, ce qui témoigne de la nécessité impérative de leur fournir un soutien et de les réinsérer dans la société (Banque mondiale 2017a). En Afrique, près d’un adulte en âge de travailler sur dix souffre d’un handicap (Mitra et al. 2013) [3]. Les personnes handicapées affichent fréquemment un taux d’achèvement des études primaires et un taux d’emploi plus faibles que les personnes non handicapées. Sur les sept pays africains pour lesquels des données comparables émanant de l’Enquête sur la santé dans le monde sont disponibles, les écarts les plus élevés entre les deux groupes sont enregistrés par Maurice en ce qui concerne le nombre moyen d’années de scolarité (23 %), et par le Malawi en ce qui concerne le taux d’achèvement des études primaires (33 %) (Mitra et al. 2011). Les personnes handicapées ont un accès plus limité aux services en raison, fréquemment, de la stigmatisation et de la discrimination dont elles font l’objet et qui, dans les cas extrêmes, peuvent mettre leur vie en danger. Les personnes atteintes d’albinisme, par exemple, sont en butte à des mythes dangereux dans plusieurs régions d’Afrique : certains croient que ce sont des fantômes – et non des êtres humains – et que la possession de parties de leur corps peut être source de richesse et porter chance (Under the Same Sun 2014). En Tanzanie, ces conceptions culturelles ont entraîné la mort de 72 personnes atteintes d’albinisme (cas recensés) entre 2007 et 2013 (Under the Same Sun 2014). L’évolution actuelle de la situation en Afrique contribue aux problèmes de l’exclusion. La population extrêmement pauvre s’est accrue de 100 millions de personnes en Afrique, notamment par suite de la croissance démographique, même si elle a diminué en proportion de la population totale (Beegle et al. 2016). Les inégalités sont de surcroît source de difficultés : sept des dix pays affichant les inégalités les plus criantes se trouvent en Afrique (Beegle et al. 2016). La région connaît aussi un rapide processus d’urbanisation puisque les villes comptent chaque jour 40 000 personnes de plus : la population urbaine devrait s’accroître de plus de 450 millions de personnes entre 2010 et 2040, lorsque la moitié de la population africaine vivra en zone urbaine (Banque mondiale 2013b). Bien que l’urbanisation crée des possibilités et une demande de mobilité sociale, et qu’elle modifie les normes et les valeurs, elle est aussi source de polarisation : environ 70 % de la population urbaine africaine vit dans des établissements informels (Banque mondiale 2013b). Enfin, le changement climatique a des répercussions sur les plus pauvres : selon les estimations, d’ici 2030 jusqu’à 110 millions de personnes extrêmement pauvres subiront des sécheresses, des inondations et des périodes de chaleur extrême en Afrique (Shepherd et al. 2013). Il est toutefois possible de saisir certaines opportunités pour promouvoir un développement inclusif en Afrique. Le taux de croissance économique moyen de la région, qui s’est établi à 4,5 % par an au cours des 20 dernières années, est remarquablement robuste (Beegle et al. 2016). La technologie ouvre des perspectives en permettant d’atteindre les personnes les plus vulnérables : le nombre de connexions téléphoniques fixes et mobiles est passé de 3 pour 1 000 personnes en 1990 à 736 pour 1 000 en 2014, tandis que la proportion d’internautes est passée de 1,3 % en 2005 à 16,7 % en 2015 (Banque mondiale 2017b). Le sens de l’innovation et l’esprit d’entreprise peuvent aussi contribuer à aider la population à sortir de la pauvreté et de l’exclusion : les jeunes entreprises technologiques ont levé plus de 129 millions de dollars en 2016, et le nombre de celles qui obtiennent des financements a augmenté de 16,8 % par rapport à l’année précédente, selon les données compilées par Disrupt Africa (Disrupt Africa 2017). La Banque mondiale, conjointement à ses partenaires, exploite les opportunités qui s’offrent de promouvoir une Afrique plus inclusive en procédant à des analyses, en poursuivant des opérations et en formulant des stratégies. À titre d’exemple, un projet régional couvrant l’Éthiopie, l’Ouganda, Djibouti et le Kenya exploite les informations produites par les études des déplacements forcés dans la Corne de l’Afrique pour faire face aux besoins des communautés d’accueil en matière de services, de moyens de subsistance et de viabilité environnementale. Un nouveau projet mené au Nigéria visera à autonomiser les femmes sur le plan économique tandis que des interventions poursuivies dans la région des Grands Lacs et en Ouganda ont été conçues pour prévenir la violence sexiste et y remédier. Le laboratoire d’innovation sur le genre et l’égalité des sexes en Afrique procède à des évaluations des impacts en considérant la dynamique des sexes et les répercussions par sexe d’une large gamme de projets dans le but d’en tirer des enseignements pour des interventions futures. Les opérations menées en RDC, en République centrafricaine, au Rwanda et au Mali avec l’appui du Programme transitoire de démobilisation et de réintégration (TDRP), soutiennent la démobilisation et la réintégration des ex-combattants, en leur assurant une formation et des moyens de gagner leur vie. Un projet de démobilisation poursuivi au Burundi vise plus particulièrement les ex-combattants handicapés et offre un exemple des activités de développement faisant place aux personnes handicapées. Au Mali, un projet de renforcement des compétences et de promotion de l’emploi des jeunes aide ces derniers à acquérir les qualifications nécessaires pour être en mesure d’obtenir un emploi. Ces interventions, parmi d’autres, privilégient des processus à caractère participatif pilotés par les communautés pour donner à leurs membres la possibilité de se faire entendre et de participer à la vie de la société, car ce sont là des voies d’accès essentielles à l’inclusion. BibliographieBeegle, K., L. Christianensen, A. Dabalen, and I. Gaddis (2016): Poverty in A Rising Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.Botha, Anneli (2014): Radicalization in Kenya – Recruitment to al-Shabaab and the Mombasa Republican Council. ISS Paper 265. Pretoria: Institute for Security Studies.Disrupt Africa (2017): Disrupt Africa African Tech Startups Funding Report 2016.Kenya Bureau of Statistics (2014): Socio-Economic Atlas of Kenya – Depicting the National Population Census by County and Sub-Location. Nairobi: Kenya Bureau of Statistics.Mitra, S., A. Posarac, B. Vick (2011): Disability and Poverty in Developing Countries – A Snapshot from the World Health Survey. Washington DC: World Bank.Mitra, S., A. Posarac, and B. Vick (2013): Disability and Poverty in Developing Countries: A Multidimensional Study. World Development, 41, 1-18.Peterman, A., T. Palermo, and Cc Bredenkamp (2011): Estimates and Determinants of Sexual Violence Against Women in the Democratic Republic of Congo. American Journal of Public Health 101 (6): 1060 - 1067.Sanghi, A., H. Onder, V. Vemuru (2016): “Yes” In My Backyard? Washington DC: World Bank.Shepherd, A., T. Mitchell, K. Lewis, A. Lenhardt, L. Jones, L. Scott, and R. Muir-Wood (2013): The Geography of Poverty, Disasters and Climate Extremes in 2030. London: Overseas Development Institute (ODI).Under the Same Sun (2013): Children With Albinism: Violence and Displacement. Dar es Salaam: Under the Same Sun.UNHCR (2017): Global Trends – Forced Displacement in 2016. Geneva: UNHCR.World Bank (2011): Gender Equality and Development – World Development Report 2012. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2013a): Inclusion Matters – The Foundation for Shared Prosperity. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2013b): Harnessing Urbanization to End Poverty and Boost Prosperity in Africa – An Action Agenda for Transformation. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2014): Youth Employment in Sub-Saharan Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2015a): World Bank Gender Data Portal – Number of Maternal Deaths. Accessed October 8, 2017.World Bank (2015b): Forced Displacement and Mixed Migration in the Horn of Africa. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2016a): Poverty and Shared Prosperity 2016 – Taking On Inequality. Washington DC: World Bank. World Bank (2016b): World Bank Gender Data Portal – Firms with Female Participation in Ownership. Washington DC: World Bank. Accessed October 8, 2017.World Bank (2017a): Project Appraisal Document Mali Reinsertion of Ex-Combatants Project. Washington DC: World Bank.World Bank (2017b): Africa’s Pulse – An Analysis of Issues Shaping Africa’s Economic Future. Volume 15. Washington DC: World Bank. World Health Organization (2013): Global and Regional Estimates of Violence Against Women – Prevalence and Health Effects of Intimate Partner Violence and Non-Partner Sexual Violence. Geneva: World Health Organization.   [1] Selon la liste harmonisée des situations fragiles établie par la Banque mondiale pour l’exercice 18 qui se trouve sur le site Harmonized List of Fragile Situations for fiscal year 2018. [2] Calculs effectués par les services du Programme transitoire de démobilisation et de réintégration (TDRP). [3] Ce chiffre est une estimation de la prévalence des handicaps chez les personnes en âge de travailler (18 à 65 ans) dans sept pays africains pour lesquels des données comparables émanant de l'Enquête sur la santé dans le monde sont disponibles : Burkina Faso, Ghana, Kenya, Malawi, Maurice, Zambie et Zimbabwe. 
L’effet redistributif de la fiscalité et des transferts : l’expérience de huit pays en développement
Les discussions actuelles entourant la redistribution fiscale dans les pays à revenu faible et intermédiaire s’attachent davantage aux effets de la politique budgétaire sur la réduction des inégalités qu’à son impact sur le niveau de vie des pauvres. Mais une nouvelle étude de la Banque mondiale, intitulée The Distributional Impact of Taxes and Transfers: Evidence from Eight Developing Countries (a) montre que, malgré leurs effets égalisateurs, les régimes fiscaux amputent souvent les capacités de consommation des pauvres. Publié en collaboration avec l’institut Commitment to Equity (CEQ) de l’université Tulane, l’ouvrage évalue l’impact de la fiscalité et des dépenses publiques sur le revenu des ménages, des particuliers et des groupes socioéconomiques ainsi que sur la distribution des revenus dans l’ensemble de la population. L’analyse, qui propose des résultats comparables d’un pays à l’autre, s’appuie sur un cadre méthodologique commun mis au point par l’institut CEQ pour apprécier l’effet conjugué de la fiscalité et des transferts sur la réduction de la pauvreté et des inégalités ainsi que la contribution marginale de chacune de ces deux interventions.
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