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Putting Clean Cooking on the Front Burner
 “Why do I get tears in my eyes when you cook inside the room?” asks Mamta’s daughter, looking at her mother while she prepares rice and daal in a chula, a firewood-burning cookstove.   The smoke released from the burning wood is quickly filling up the small room of their home, in the village of Siraj Nagar, outside of Dhaka in Bangladesh. Most households in the village use a chula, exposing entire families to harmful fumes. Just like Mamta, there are nearly 3 billion people around the world who still rely on traditional, inefficient stoves for cooking and heating their homes, which burn wood, charcoal, coal, animal dung or crop waste. The estimated health, environmental and economic cost of this continued use of solid fuels staggering: $123 billion annually. Women and children are disproportionally affected by the health impacts, and bear much of the burden of collecting firewood or other traditional fuels. Greenhouse gas emissions from nonrenewable wood fuels alone amount to a gigaton of CO2 per year – about 1.9-2.3 percent of global emissions. Shifting to clean, efficient cooking can improve people’s health, reduce toxic air pollution, increase productivity and protect the environment. But changing cooking practices in households across the world is more complicated than it seems. It requires changing behavior and raising awareness of the benefits of clean cookstoves and fuels, as well as helping businesses to meet this demand with affordable products that customers value. To meet this challenge, the World Bank has scaled up its commitments in recent years.  It now manages a $130 million portfolio in clean cooking and heating across 13 countries – one of the largest such portfolios in the world. Working with partners, and through its Energy Sector Management Assistance Program (ESMAP), the World Bank is taking a multifaceted approach combining innovative market-based strategies, efficient stove technologies, better affordability, development of supply chains, and a focus on consumer behavior. World Bank programs in countries such as China, Ethiopia, Kenya, Indonesia, Senegal and Uganda have already benefited 11 million people who now have access to cleaner, more efficient cooking and heating solutions.   These programs translate into countless individual stories. In Indonesia, Tami, a 24-year-old mother of two started using a Keren Super Stove as her primary cook stove with help from a program supported by the World Bank. She is now able to spend more time with her family and less time cooking and fuel collection. Yeni, another Indonesia woman who was formerly using kerosene, purchased a clean cookstove, and is now saving enough money to send both of her children to school. 
Supporting Ethiopia’s Pro-Poor Public Expenditure to Ensure Equitable Growth
ADDIS ABABA, December 28, 2017—Although Ethiopia has succeeded at improving the delivery of basic services to its rapidly growing population—and met a number of universal development markers for health and welfare—it still has a long way to restructuring its economy and improving public education. Agriculture, for example, is still the largest source of employment for young Ethiopians and, in rural areas, the proportion of children not completing primary school is 84 percent. Regional disparities exist in access to decent quality services, too, with several parts of the country lagging behind the national average. Even more marked are differences between the availability or adequacy of services, such as health clinics and schools, across the regions’ woredas (districts), as well as between their urban and rural areas. A good 70 million Ethiopians are under the age of 30 (of a total population of about 100 million); they also form half of the country’s labor force (age 15–29). Many of them suffer ill health and, as a result of their poor education, have low skills. Ensuring more equitable growth, better access to quality basic social services for them is critical. Pro-poor public expenditure and local accountability systems reduce inequality For its Second Growth and Transformation Plan (GTP2), the Government of Ethiopia has identified access to basic services as one of the three main drivers of poverty reduction, as well as an element critical to achieving Ethiopia’s vision of becoming a middle-income country by 2025. Improving access to basic services is also in line with the World Bank’s new Country Partnership Framework for Ethiopia. The Bank’s Equitable Services (ESPES) Program builds on its precursor, the Promoting Basic Services Program, and uses the Inter-Governmental Fiscal Transfer system, or block grants, to support Ethiopia’s decentralized system of governance and promote the flow of information and resources between different levels of government. Woreda block grants correlate to poverty levels—the higher the poverty rate, the more money per capita is transferred to that woreda. Given that a higher poverty rate implies a lower level of basic service sector outcomes, spending at the woreda level also increases the outcomes of most basic service sector indicators. ESPES therefore allows the government to tackle regional inequalities and narrow the gap between rich and poor by financing parts of the recurrent costs of woreda-level basic services—including salaries for teachers, health workers, and agricultural extension workers—in the poorest performing districts, and in the bottom 20 percent income groups. Reliable district-level basic services mean better development outcomes Since its inception, the ESPES program has improved equitable access to basic services in nearly 1,000 districts nationwide. Bolstered by inputs from sector spending and other Bank projects, it has enabled a 23 percent increase in the net enrollment rate of primary school students. By facilitating the deployment of more primary school teachers, it has also increased students’ access to teaching staff. Similarly, an increase in better-qualified health extension workers has given communities better access to essential health services, resulting in a 28 percent decrease in child mortality since 2006. Agricultural extension workers, who convey crucial information about improvements in farming, livestock care, and the environment, are also more readily available in ESPES-financed woredas. A full 17 percent increase in public access to improved water supply since 2006 can be attributed to the greater availability of staff who coordinate community water-user groups. ESPES also supports transparency measures, like posting budgets, and helps improve public finance management with timely reporting and auditing; it helps improve the reporting of results across all the woredas; and, in at least 232 districts, it helps citizens to budget for education and discuss it. These measures will have a positive and lasting impact on managing and delivering basic services. Additional Financing to strengthen citizens’ engagement and ensure sustainability The World Bank has approved the Government of Ethiopia’s request for additional financing to fund block grants for basic social services, such as public health care, education, agriculture, rural roads, water, and sanitation. In addition to scaling up existing activities, the funds will help promote proper nutrition, citizen engagement, social and environmental safeguards, and fiduciary management in the woredas. As sustainability depends not only on financing but on the quality and capacity of the institutional mechanisms underpinning service delivery, capacity building will also become a major area of focus to ensure that any advances made become fully institutionalized.
Es hora de dar prominencia a las formas de cocinar no contaminantes
“¿Por qué me lagrimean los ojos cuando cocinas aquí dentro?”, pregunta la hija de Mamta mientras la observa preparar arroz y daal en una chula, una especie de cocina de leña. El humo que despide la leña que se quema llena rápidamente la pequeña habitación de su casa, ubicada en la aldea de Siraj Nagar, en las afueras de Dhaka, Bangladesh. En la mayoría de los hogares de la aldea se utiliza la chula, que expone a familias enteras a un humo perjudicial. Al igual que Mamta, hay casi 3000 millones de personas en todo el mundo que aún utilizan artefactos tradicionales pero ineficientes para cocinar y calentar sus hogares, en los que se quema leña, carbón, carbón vegetal, estiércol o desechos de cultivos. El costo estimado en términos sanitarios, ambientales y económicos de este uso continuo de combustibles sólidos es abrumador: USD 123 000 millones anuales. Las mujeres y los niños se ven desproporcionadamente afectados por los impactos en la salud y soportan la mayor parte de la carga que supone recolectar leña y otros combustibles tradicionales. Tan solo las emisiones de gases de efecto invernadero producidas por combustibles de leña no renovables equivalen a una gigatonelada de dióxido de carbono por año, lo que constituye entre el 1,9 % y el 2,3 % de las emisiones mundiales. La transición hacia formas de cocinar más eficientes y menos contaminantes puede mejorar la salud de las personas, reducir la contaminación tóxica del aire, incrementar la productividad y proteger el medio ambiente. Pero cambiar las prácticas de cocina en los hogares de todo el mundo es más complicado de lo que parece. Exige un cambio de comportamiento y un aumento de la sensibilización acerca de los beneficios de las cocinas y los combustibles no contaminantes, así como la prestación de ayuda a las empresas para que satisfagan esta demanda con productos asequibles que los clientes valoren. Para hacer frente a este desafío, el Banco Mundial ha ampliado sus compromisos en los últimos años. Actualmente gestiona una cartera de USD 130 millones relativa a formas de cocinar y calefaccionar no contaminantes en 13 países, una de las carteras más grandes de este tipo en todo el mundo. Trabajando con asociados, y a través del Programa de Asistencia para la Gestión del Sector de la Energía (ESMAP) (i), el Banco está adoptando un enfoque multifacético que combina estrategias de mercado innovadoras, tecnologías de cocinas eficientes, mayor asequibilidad, fortalecimiento de las cadenas de suministro y una atención centrada en el comportamiento de los consumidores. Los programas del Banco Mundial en países tales como China, Etiopía, Kenya, Indonesia, Senegal y Uganda ya han beneficiado a 11 millones de personas que ahora tienen acceso a soluciones más limpias y eficientes para cocinar y calefaccionar su hogar. Estos programas se traducen en innumerables historias individuales. En Indonesia, Tami, una madre de 24 años con dos hijos comenzó a utilizar una cocina Keren Super Stove como cocina principal, gracias a la ayuda de un programa respaldado por el Banco Mundial. Ahora puede pasar más tiempo con su familia y menos tiempo cocinando y recolectando combustible. Yeni, otra mujer indonesia que antes utilizaba keroseno, adquirió una cocina no contaminante y ahora ahorra suficiente dinero para enviar a sus dos hijos a la escuela. 
玛姆塔在chula(一种烧柴火的炉灶)上蒸米饭和豆泥糊时,女儿看着她问道:“为什么您在屋里做饭时我会流眼泪呢?”   她家住在孟加拉国首都达卡郊外的Siraj Nagar村,燃烧的柴火排放的烟雾很快就弥漫在她家的小屋子。该村大多数农户都用这种炉灶做饭,这使得所有家人都暴露在有害的烟雾之中。 同玛姆塔一样,全世界目前有近30亿人仍依赖传统、低效的炉灶做饭和采暖,此类炉灶所用燃料包括柴火、木炭、煤炭、畜粪或作物秸秆等。据测算,这种持续利用固体燃料的做法所产生的环境和经济代价大得惊人:每年高达1230亿美元。妇女和儿童首当其冲地遭受了健康影响,同时也承担了捡拾柴火或其它传统燃料的劳作负担。每年,仅不可再生的薪柴排放的温室气体就达到了10亿吨二氧化碳当量,约占全球排放总量1.9-2.3%。 转而采用清洁、高效的炊事方式可改善人民健康状况,减少毒性空气污染,提高生产效率,保护环境。不过,改变全世界家庭炊事习惯说起来容易,但做起来更为复杂。要做到这一点,就要改变人们的行为,提升其对清洁炉灶和清洁燃料好处的认知,帮助企业用消费者看重且买得起的产品来满足这一要求。 为应对这一挑战,世界银行近年来加大了承诺贷款力度。目前,世界银行在13国管理着投资总额达1.3亿美元的数个清洁炊事和采暖项目——这一业务是全世界此类业务中规模最大的之一。目前,世界银行正会同多个合作伙伴并通过其能源部门管理援助计划采取多种方式应对这一挑战,包括制定并实施创新型市场化策略、推广节能炉灶技术、提升相关产品的可支付性、建立并发展供应链以及聚焦消费者行为。 世界银行在中国、埃塞俄比亚、肯尼亚、印度尼西亚、塞内加尔、乌干达等国资助实施的项目已惠及了1100万人,他们均采用了更清洁、更高效的炊事和采暖方案。 这些项目下的故事不胜枚举。在印尼,今年24岁的塔米是两个孩子的母亲,她在世界银行资助的某项目帮助下开始把可人牌超节能炉灶用作家中做饭的主要炉灶,因此而减少了做饭和捡拾柴火时间,把更多时间用来陪伴家人。耶妮是另一位印尼妇女,她从前把煤油用作燃料。自从购买了一台清洁炉灶之后,她省下了不少钱,足以供孩子们上学。
منح الأولوية للطهي النظيف
تتساءل ابنة مامتا وهي تنظر إلى أمها وتعد الأرز مع الدال (العدس الهندي) على الشعلة، وهو موقد الطهي الذي يعمل بالحطب "لماذا تدمع عيناي كلما طهوت الطعام داخل الغرفة؟"سرعان ما يملأ الدخان المتصاعد من الحطب المشتعل الغرفة الصغيرة في منزلهما بقرية سيراج نجار القريبة من العاصمة داكا في بنغلاديش. أغلب منازل القرية تستخدم الشعلة، مما يعرض جميع الأسر للأدخنة الضارة.ومثلما هو الحال تماما مع مامتا، مازال نحو ثلاثة مليارات شخص في العالم يعتمدون على المواقد التقليدية وغير الفعالة للطهي ولتدفئة منازلهم، والتي تحرق الحطب والفحم النباتي والفحم الحجري وروث الحيوان أو مخلفات المحاصيل. الخسائر الصحية والبيئية والاقتصادية الناجمة عن الاستعمال المتواصل للوقود الصلب مذهلة: تقدر بنحو 123 مليار دولار سنويا. والأطفال والنساء هم الأكثر تضررا من الآثار الصحية، ويتحملون الكثير من العبء في جمع الحطب أو جلب الأنواع الأخرى من الوقود. إن الانبعاثات المسببة للاحتباس الحراري التي يتسبب فيها الحطب تصل إلى جيجا طن من ثاني أكسيد الكربون سنويا- وهو يشكل ما بين 1.9 و2.3% من الانبعاثات الغازية في العالم.التحول إلى الطهي النظيف والفعال يمكن أن يؤدي إلى تحسين صحة الناس والحد من تلوث الهواء بالمواد السامة وزيادة الإنتاجية وحماية البيئة. إلا أن أمر تغيير ممارسات الطهي في المنازل في مختلف أنحاء العالم هو في الواقع أكثر تعقيدا مما يبدو عليه. فهو يقتضي تغيير السلوكيات، وزيادة الوعي بمزايا الطهي النظيف والمواقد النظيفة والوقود النظيف، ومساعدة أنشطة الأعمال على تلبية هذا الطلب من خلال منتجات قليلة التكلفة يقيمها الزبائن.لمواجهة هذا التحدي، زاد البنك الدولي من ارتباطاته في السنوات الأخيرة. والآن، بات يدير حافظة بقيمة 130 مليون دولار للطهي النظيف والتدفئة تمتد مشاريعها في 13 بلدا- وهي الحافظة الأكبر من نوعها في العالم. بالعمل مع الشركاء، ومن خلال برنامج المساعدة في إدارة قطاع الطاقة، اعتمد البنك الدولي نهجا متعدد الأوجه يجمع بين استراتيجيات مبتكرة تستند إلى السوق وبين تكنولوجيات المواقد المتطورة، والتكلفة المعقولة، وإيجاد سلاسل للتوريد، والتركيز على سلوكيات المستهلك.ساعدت البرامج التي نفذها البنك الدولي في بلدان مثل الصين وإثيوبيا وكينيا وإندونيسيا والسنغال وأوغندة نحو 11 مليون شخص بالفعل أصبح في متناول أيديهم الآن الحصول على حلول أكثر كفاءة للطهي والتدفئة.هذه البرامج تترجم إلى قصص فردية لا حصر لها. في إندونيسيا، بدأت تامي، وهي أم لطفلين تبلغ من العمر 24 عاما، في استخدام موقد كيرين الفائق الجودة، كموقد رئيسي للطهي بفضل الدعم الذي قدمه لها برنامج يدعمه البنك الدولي. وأصبح بوسعها الآن قضاء المزيد من الوقت مع أسرتها وتقليص المدة التي تمضيها في الطهي وجمع الحطب. ييني، سيدة إندونيسية أخرى كانت تستخدم الكيروسين في السابق، اشترت موقدا نظيفا للطهي، وأصبحت الآن توفر المزيد من المال الكافي لإرسال طفليها إلى المدرسة. 
Une actualité brûlante : les appareils de cuisson propres
« Pourquoi est-ce que je pleure quand tu cuisines à l’intérieur ? », demande la fillette à sa mère, Mamta, qui prépare du riz et des lentilles sur leur chula, le fourneau à bois. La fumée qui s’échappe du bois remplit rapidement la petite pièce de leur maison dans le village de Siraj Nagar, aux alentours de Dhaka, au Bangladesh. La plupart des habitants préparent leurs repas sur des chula et exposent ainsi des familles entières à des émanations nocives. Comme Mamta, près de 3 milliards de personnes dans le monde utilisent toujours des appareils de cuisson et de chauffage traditionnels et inefficaces fonctionnant au bois, au charbon de bois, à la houille, au fumier animal ou aux résidus agricoles. Le coût pour la santé, l’environnement et l’économie de ce recours continu aux combustibles fossiles est exorbitant, puisqu’il est estimé à 123 milliards de dollars par an. Les femmes et les enfants sont les premières victimes sur le plan de la santé, sachant que c’est également à eux qu’incombe le plus souvent les corvées de ramassage. À eux seuls, les combustibles ligneux non renouvelables émettent pratiquement une gigatonne de CO2 par an, soit entre 1,9 et 2,3 % des émissions de gaz à effets de serre (GES) dans le monde. La conversion à des moyens de cuisson propres et efficients peut améliorer la santé publique, réduire la pollution de l’air par des substances toxiques, accroître la productivité et protéger l’environnement. Mais la conversion des pratiques des ménages du monde entier est plus complexe qu’il n’y paraît. Il faut certes faire évoluer les comportements et sensibiliser aux bienfaits des appareils de cuisson et des combustibles propres mais il faut également aider les entreprises à répondre à cette nouvelle demande avec des produits bon marché appréciés des clients. Bien consciente du problème, la Banque mondiale renforce son soutien depuis quelques années. Aujourd’hui, elle gère un portefeuille de 130 millions de dollars dans 13 pays en appui aux appareils de cuisson et de chauffage propres — l’un des plus importants au monde. Avec ses partenaires et à travers son Programme d’assistance à la gestion du secteur énergétique (ESMAP), elle déploie une stratégie en plusieurs volets, conjuguant approches de marché, technologies de cuisson efficientes, prix plus abordables, création de chaînes logistiques et évolution des comportements des consommateurs. Les programmes mis en place en Chine, en Éthiopie, en Indonésie, au Kenya, en Ouganda ou au Sénégal ont déjà bénéficié à 11 millions de personnes, qui ont désormais accès à des solutions plus propres et efficientes pour cuisiner et se chauffer. Les effets sur la vie quotidienne des bénéficiaires sont innombrables : en Indonésie par exemple, Tami cuisine désormais principalement avec son Keren Super Stove, qu’elle a pu obtenir grâce à un programme soutenu par la Banque mondiale. Libérée des longues corvées de bois et de cuisine, la jeune femme de 24 ans, mère de deux enfants, peut ainsi passer plus de temps avec sa famille. Quant à Yeni, une autre Indonésienne qui utilisait jusque-là du kérosène, elle s’est équipée d’un réchaud propre et, grâce aux économies réalisées, peut envoyer ses enfants à l’école.
World Bank Reaffirms its Commitment to Further Improve the Quality and Promote Equity of Education in Ethiopia
WASHINGTON, December 19, 2017 — The World Bank today approved an International Development Association (IDA)* grant of $300 million to the Government of Ethiopia in support of its continued efforts to improve the provision of quality education nationwide. Over the past decade, with support from the World Bank-funded General Education Quality Improvement Program (GEQIP), Ethiopia has made positive strides in the education sector, and has significantly improved the quality of teaching and learning conditions in 40,000 primary and secondary schools across the country. GEQIP I and II provided nearly 250 million textbooks/teaching materials to schools, improved teacher quality by upgrading the qualifications of 300,000 teachers, provided resources for school level expenditure on quality improvements, and improved accountability through a sound inspection system. This has contributed to substantially increasing the number of students enrolled in schools. “The progress Ethiopia has made in the education sector is commendable. Unlike most other countries, Ethiopia has been able to avoid the deterioration in quality of education that often accompanies a rapid expansion of access. However, more work is needed to further scale up the modest improvement in learning outcomes at the primary level. For instance, only 33% of students in Grade 2 can read at the required fluency level in mother tongue,” said Hiroshi Saeki, World Bank Team Leader for the project. Ethiopia’s education sector continues to face a number of key challenges, including inequitable access to education opportunities for females and other vulnerable groups, especially in remote areas. Furthermore, Ethiopia’s investment in teachers’ training has not fully translated to improvements in their quality and effectiveness. To address some of these challenges, the new General Education Quality Improvement Program for Equity (GEQIP-E) will continue supporting the quality, internal efficiency, equity, and capacity development in primary and secondary education. Specifically, GEQIP-E will build on the results achieved under the first two phases of the project by creating the incentives for aligning inputs to improve student learning. GEQIP-E thus shifts the focus to attainment of results, by improving teaching practices in the classroom, enhancing the use of textbooks, and ensuring that school grants are effectively used to implement results based school improvement plans. GEQIP-E will develop and implement a school-based professional development program that will provide continuous support to existing teachers to improve teaching quality. GEQIP-E will also focus on addressing the high primary school dropout rates, as well as the low and stagnating secondary school enrollment rates.  GEQIP-E will put special emphasis on equity and addressing the needs of female students, pastoralists, and those with special needs or disabilities by providing them with specialized support, particularly in the emerging regions of the country. Among other things, GEQIP-E will empower girls, reduce violence against them in schools and provide them with life skills. Similarly, it will address the unique needs of pastoralist communities with additional resources and customized approaches. The project will promote the inclusion of children with special needs in education by providing supplementary school grants to transform 687 schools to inclusive education resource centers. “This project will help address many of the bottlenecks that are holding girls and students with special needs from getting equal opportunities to learn and prosper. By 2025, in Afar, Somali and Benishangul-Gumuz, we hope to increase the gross enrollment rate of girls in primary schools by 21%, and increase the number of students with special needs in schools by eight folds from 3,000 to 24,000,” said Carolyn Turk, World Bank Country Director for Ethiopia, Sudan and South Sudan. GEQIP-E will be implemented in all public primary (including 0-class) and secondary schools in Ethiopia. In total, 27 million students and 520,000 teachers in 35,000 public schools are expected to benefit from the project.  The program will be implemented by the Ministry of Education together with the Ministry of Finance and Economic Cooperation, the Regional Education Bureaus, and the participating universities and teacher training institutions across the country. The $300 million IDA investment in GEQIP-E is expected to leverage additional funding of around $140 million from development partners, including DFID, Finland, and UNICEF through the Multi Donor Trust Fund managed by the World Bank.   * The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA), established in 1960, helps the world’s poorest countries by providing grants and low to zero-interest loans for projects and programs that boost economic growth, reduce poverty, and improve poor people’s lives. IDA is one of the largest sources of assistance for the world’s 75 poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa. Resources from IDA bring positive change to the 1.5 billion people who live in IDA countries. Since 1960, IDA has supported development work in 113 countries. Annual commitments have averaged about $18 billion over the last three years, with about 54 percent going to Africa.
Ethiopia - General Education Quality Improvement Program for Equity
IDA Grant: $300.0 million equivalentProject ID: P163050 Project description: This project will assist Ethiopia in improving internal efficiency, equitable access and quality in general education. 
World Bank Supports Ethiopia’s Efforts to Unleash the Potential of its Livestock and Fisheries Sectors
WASHINGTON, December 12, 2017 — The World Bank today approved an International Development Association (IDA)* credit of $170 million to boost the contribution of the livestock and fisheries sectors to Ethiopia’s economy. “The Livestock and Fisheries Sector Development Project will help 1.2 million farm households who largely depend on livestock-keeping and fishing, with the skills and tools they need to considerably increase the volume and quality of their produce, which means that they will earn substantially more.  For instance, dairy subsistence farmers could increase their milk production by 1.5 time and dairy cooperatives triple the volume of milk they collect and sale, while more specialized farmers could double daily egg production and cultivate five times more fish,” said Carolyn Turk, World Bank Country Director for Ethiopia, Sudan and South Sudan. “Furthermore, by ensuring that disadvantaged groups such as women and unemployed youth are included, the project will provide them with economic opportunities that will significantly improve their livelihoods.” Ethiopia has the largest livestock population in Africa and the fifth largest in the world. Despite receiving limited public investments over the years, the livestock sector continues to be a major source of foreign exchange earnings and accounts for nearly 40 percent of the country’s agricultural GDP. The Government of Ethiopia has identified the livestock and fisheries sectors as essential aspects of its journey to reach the middle-income country status. The sectors will also contribute to the country’s green growth priorities. “While Ethiopia’s livestock and fisheries have great potential for growth and job creation and could significantly contribute to poverty reduction and food security, their contributions continue to be undermined by key challenges such as limited adoption of improved practices, poor provision of support services, as well as scarce marketing and processing facilities. To address these challenges, the project will support smallholder farmers to increase their productivity and improve the marketing of their products. Specifically, farmers in high potential regions engaged in the production and processing of dairy, poultry, red meat, and fish will have critical knowledge, services, investments, and access to markets,” said Francois G. Le Gall, Lead Agriculture Specialist at the World Bank. The project will be principally implemented in 58 Woredas (districts) in six regions (Amhara, Benishangul-Gumuz, Gambella, Oromia, SNNPR, and Tigray), with crosscutting activities of the project having a national coverage.   * The World Bank’s International Development Association (IDA), established in 1960, helps the world’s poorest countries by providing grants and low to zero-interest loans for projects and programs that boost economic growth, reduce poverty, and improve poor people’s lives. IDA is one of the largest sources of assistance for the world’s 75 poorest countries, 39 of which are in Africa. Resources from IDA bring positive change to the 1.5 billion people who live in IDA countries. Since 1960, IDA has supported development work in 113 countries. Annual commitments have averaged about $18 billion over the last three years, with about 54 percent going to Africa.
Zanzibar Passes on the Baton to Ethiopia in a Race to Embrace the Drone Industry
Zanzibar has long attracted visitors to its white sandy beaches, turquoise Indian Ocean waters, and African-Arab Swahili heritage sites. But recently a different kind of tourist has been frequenting Zanzibar’s historic Stone Town, and all because of the island’s growing reputation as a regional center for geospatial activity. Zanzibar’s newfound fame comes from its embrace of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs, aka drones) to generate the imagery it needed for a new base map of its islands. With a population of only 1.4 million, the administration of the Zanzibar Isles has been trying to work out how to unlock the islands’ land values in order to drive growth and investment. Key to this is the digitization and registration of assets in houses and land. But although Zanzibar set a target of registering 50 percent of land parcels by 2015, the figure of registered parcels of land sits at only 5 percent. “The challenge for the Zanzibar government’s small Geographic Information System team has primarily been cost, as well as the complexity involved in acquiring and managing the satellite data, which is often obscured by clouds,” said Edward Anderson, Task Team Leader for the Zanzibar Mapping Initiative (ZMI), which is supported by the World Bank Tanzania’s Geospatial and Innovation Team. The last time Zanzibar paid for imagery from manned flights, in 2004, it cost millions of dollars. “The Commission for Lands therefore sought an innovative approach to accelerating the land digitization and asset mapping process,” Anderson added. Drones are cheaper Drones—or UAVs—are a new type of remote sensing platform that is inexpensive, easy to use, and flexible. They provide new options regarding where and when images can be taken, and how detailed they can be. As the technology behind them evolves, it is revolutionizing spatial data acquisition and geographic analysis. This paradigm shift offers new uses for drones, and calls for new sets of skills to be developed, as well as new best practices, new regulations, policies, ethics—and more. Enter, the Drones for Development Study Tour! Aiming to be a pioneer in the East Africa region for this shift in geospatial mapping, the Bank’s ZMI team has developed a study tour in Zanzibar to help show the project’s best practices to interested parties, and to run through the institutional and technical requirements necessary for developing a comprehensive strategy for UAV mapping. ZMI received a key World Bank award for innovation in the Bank’s financial year 2016/17. This attracted the attention of the Sustainable Land Management Project II (SLMP-2) Bank team in Ethiopia, which also won the award and which wanted to look at using UAVs for land administration and watershed planning.
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